(Last Updated: February 11, 2021.)
For hospitalized patients with COVID-19, prophylactic dose anticoagulation should be prescribed unless contraindicated (e.g., a patient has active hemorrhage or severe thrombocytopenia) (AIII). Although data supporting this recommendation are limited, a retrospective study showed reduced mortality in patients who received prophylactic anticoagulation, particularly if the patient had a sepsis-induced coagulopathy score ≥4.4 For those without COVID-19, anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy should not be used to prevent arterial thrombosis outside of the standard of care (AIII). Anticoagulation is routinely used to prevent arterial thromboembolism in patients with heart arrhythmias. Although there are reports of strokes and myocardial infarction in patients with COVID-19, the incidence of these events is unknown.
HOSPITALIZED PATIENTS WITH COVID-19
When imaging is not possible, patients with COVID-19 who experience an incident thromboembolic event or who are highly suspected to have thromboembolic disease should be managed with therapeutic doses of anticoagulant therapy as per the standard of care for patients without COVID-19 (AIII).
There are currently insufficient data to recommend either for or against the use of thrombolytic agents or higher than the prophylactic dose of anticoagulation for VTE prophylaxis for hospitalized patients with COVID-19 outside of a clinical trial. Three international trials (ACTIV-4, REMAP-CAP, and ATTACC) compared the effectiveness of therapeutic dose anticoagulation and prophylactic dose anticoagulation in reducing the need for organ support over 21 days in moderately ill or critically ill adults hospitalized for COVID-19. The need for organ support was defined as requiring high-flow nasal oxygen, invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, vasopressor therapy, or ECMO. The trials paused enrollment of patients requiring ICU-level care at enrollment after an interim pooled analysis demonstrated futility of therapeutic anticoagulation in reducing the need for organ support and a concern for safety. The results of the interim analysis are available on the ATTACC website. Unblinded data and additional study outcomes, including the occurrence of thrombosis, are expected to be reported soon.19
Although there is evidence that multi-organ failure is more likely in patients with sepsis who develop coagulopathy,30 there is no convincing evidence to show that any specific antithrombotic treatment will influence outcomes in those with or without COVID-19. Participation in randomized trials is encouraged.
Patients with COVID-19 who require ECMO or continuous renal replacement therapy or who have thrombosis of catheters or extracorporeal filters should be treated as per the standard institutional protocols for those without COVID-19 (AIII).