Effectiveness of pyloric exclusion (PEX) in treating duodenal trauma

One discussion this week involved the use of pyloric exclusion (PEX) for management of severe duodenal injuries.

References: DuBose JJ, et al. Pyloric exclusion in the treatment of severe duodenal injuries: results from the National Trauma Data Bank. The American Surgeon. 2008 Oct;74(10):925-929.

Malhotra A, et al. Western Trauma Assoication Critical Decisions in Trauma: Diagnosis and management of duodenal injuries. Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. 2015 Dec;79(6):1096-1101. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000870

Summary: Using the American College of Surgeons National Trauma Data Bank (v 5.0), DuBose et al (2008) evaluated adult patients with severe duodenal injuries [AAST Grade > or = 3] undergoing primary repair only or repair with PEX within 24 hours of admission.  Of the 147 patients, 28 (19.0%) underwent PEX [15.9% (11/69) Grade III vs 34.0% (17/50) Grade IV-V]. Their main findings were:

  • PEX was associated with a longer mean hospital stay (32.2 vs 22.2 days, P = 0.003).
  • PEX was not associated with a mortality benefit.
  • There was a trend toward increased development of septic abdominal complications (intra-abdominal abscess, wound infection, or dehiscence) with PEX that was not statistically significant.
  • After multivariable analysis using propensity score, no statistically significant differences in mortality or occurrence of septic abdominal complications was noted between those patients undergoing primary repair only or PEX.

DuBose et al (2008) conclude that the use of PEX in patients with severe duodenal injuries may contribute to longer hospital stay and confers no survival or outcome benefit.

The Western Trauma Association guidelines for management of duodenal injuries (Malhotra et al, 2015) include the algorithm below for determining management:

duodenal screenshot

Additional reading: Ginzburg E, et al. Pyloric exclusion in the management of duodenal trauma: is concomitant gastrojejunostomy necessary? The American Surgeon. 1997 Nov;63(11):964-966.

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