“Between January 1995 and April 2003, 1595 patients underwent PD for periampullary disease (392 benign, 1203 malignant). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was performed to determine the incidence of biliary stricture after PD.”
Results: “Forty-two of the 1595 patients (2.6%) who underwent PD developed postoperative jaundice secondary to a stricture of the biliary-enteric anastomosis. There was no difference in the incidence of biliary strictures after resection for benign (n = 10, 2.6%) or malignant disease (n = 32, 2.6%). The median time to stricture formation resulting in jaundice was 13 months (range, 1–106 months) and was similar for patients with benign and malignant disease. Preoperative jaundice did not protect against biliary stricture formation. By univariate analysis, biliary strictures were associated with preoperative percutaneous biliary drainage (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, P = 0.02) and postoperative biliary stenting (OR = 2.11, P = 0.013). Postoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with malignant disease was not associated with stricture formation. All strictures were initially managed with percutaneous biliary balloon dilatation and stenting, and only 2 patients required redo hepaticojejunostomy. Recurrent neoplastic disease was discovered in only 3 of the 32 patients (9%) with malignant disease. All 3 of these patients had cholangiocarcinoma as their initial diagnosis.”
House MG, et al Incidence and outcome of biliary strictures after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Ann Surg. 2006 May;243(5):571-6; discussion 576-8 Free Full Text
“Pneumobilia should be differentiated from portal venous gas. Portal venous gas is peripherally distributed to within 2 cm of the liver margin, whereas pneumobilia is centrally distributed.” (Gupta, P, et al. “PLAIN FILMS: BASICS.” Acute Care Surgery: Imaging Essentials for Rapid Diagnosis Eds. Kathryn L. Butler, et al. McGraw Hill, 2015.)
Patients with cirrhosis have a greater risk of morbidity and mortality following colorectal surgery. Therefore, preoperative medical optimization and risk assessment using criteria such as the MELD score are vital in preventing complications. Some risk factors include age, urgency of surgery, and ASA score. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are related to portal hypertension, ascites, infection, and anastomotic and stomal complications. This review highlights the assessment of risk and perioperative management of cirrhotic patients undergoing colorectal surgery.
BACKGROUND: The 2010 randomized PANTER trial in (infected) necrotizing pancreatitis found a minimally invasive step-up approach to be superior to primary open necrosectomy for the primary combined endpoint of mortality and major complications, but long-term results are unknown.
NEW FINDINGS: With extended follow-up, in the step-up group, patients had fewer incisional hernias, less exocrine insufficiency and a trend towards less endocrine insufficiency. No differences between groups were seen for recurrent or chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic endoscopic or surgical interventions, quality of life or costs.
IMPACT: Considering both short and long-term results, the step-up approach is superior to open necrosectomy for the treatment of infected necrotizing pancreatitis.
In summary, we propose the following recommendations:
For adult patients with grade I or II injury to the pancreas identified on CT scan, we conditionally recommend nonoperative management.
For adult patients with grade III or IV injury to the pancreas identified on CT scan, we conditionally recommend operative intervention.
For adult patients with grade I or II injuries to the pancreas who are undergoing an operation, we conditionally recommend non-resectional management.
For adult patients with grade III or IV injuries to the pancreas who are undergoing an operation, we conditionally recommend resectional management.
For adult patients with grade V injuries to the pancreas who are undergoing an operation, we give no recommendation regarding whether a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a surgical procedure other than pancreaticoduodenectomy should be performed.
For adult patients who have undergone an operation for pancreatic trauma, we conditionally recommend against the routine use of octreotide prophylaxis.
For adult patients undergoing a distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic trauma, we give no recommendation regarding whether routine splenectomy or splenic preservation should be performed.
Results: The most frequent Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score was A, The most frequent cause of cirrhosis was hepatitis C virus (HCV), while biliary colic was the most frequent presentation. The harmonic device was used in 39.9% of patients, with a significant correlation between it and lower operative bleeding, lower blood and plasma transfusion rates, higher operative adhesions rates, lower conversion to open surgery and 30-day complication rates, shorter operative time and post-operative hospital stays where operative adhesions and times were independently correlated. The 30-day morbidity and mortality were 22.1% and 2.3% respectively while overall survival was 91.5%, higher CTP, and model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores, higher mean international normalization ratio (INR) value, lower mean platelet count, higher operative bleeding, higher blood, and plasma transfusion rates, longer mean operative time and postoperative hospital stays were significantly correlated with all conversion to open surgery, 30-day morbidities and mortalities.
Conclusion: LC can be safely performed in cirrhotic patients. However, higher CTP and MELD scores, operative bleeding, more blood and plasma transfusion units, longer operative time, lower platelet count, and higher INR values are predictors of poor outcome that can be improved by proper patient selection and meticulous peri-operative care and by using Harmonic scalpel shears.
“Liver disease may result from viral hepatitis and iron overload due to multiple transfusions of blood products or due to disease activity causing varying changes in vasculature. The clinical spectrum of disease ranges from ischemic injury due to sickling of red blood cells in hepatic sinusoids, pigment gall stones, and acute/chronic sequestration syndromes. The sequestration syndromes are usually episodic and self-limiting requiring conservative management such as antibiotics and intravenous fluids or packed red cell transfusions. However, rarely these episodes may present with coagulopathy and encephalopathy like acute liver failure, which are life-threatening, requiring exchange transfusions or even liver transplantation.” (Praharaj DL, et al., p. 82)