Bile Cultures are Poor Predictors of Antibiotic Resistance in Postoperative Infections Following Pancreaticoduodenectomy

Maxwell DW, Jajja MR, Ferez-Pinzon A, Pouch SM, Cardona K, Kooby DA, Maithel SK, Russell MC, Sarmiento JM. Bile cultures are poor predictors of antibiotic resistance in postoperative infections following pancreaticoduodenectomy.HPB (Oxford). 2019 Oct 26:S1365-182X(19)30756-7.

Results: Common patient characteristics of 522 included patients were 65-years-old, Caucasian (75.5%), male (54.2%), malignant indication (79.3%), and preoperative biliary stent (59.0%). Overall, 275 (89.6%) BCs matured identifiable isolates with 152 (55.2%) demonstrating polymicrobial growth. Ninety-two (17.6%) SOICs were obtained: 48 and 44 occurred in patients with and without intraoperative BCs. Stents were associated with bacteriobilia (85.7%, K = 0.947, p < 0.001; OR 22.727, p < 0.001), but not postoperative infections (15.2%; K = 0.302, p < 0.001; OR 1.428, p = 0.122). Forty-eight patients demonstrated paired BC/SOICs to evaluate. Pathogenic concordance of this group was 31.1% (K = 0.605, p < 0.001) while SRP concordance of matched pathogens was 46.7% (K = 0.167, p = 0.008).

Conclusion: Bile cultures demonstrate poor concordance with the susceptibility/resistance patterns of postoperative infections following pancreaticoduodenectomy and may lead to inappropriate antibiotic therapies.

Smoking and pancreatic disease

Yadav D, Hawes RH, Brand RE, et al. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and the risk of recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Jun 8; 169(11):1035-45.

Free full-text.

Chronic pancreatitis_smoking

Figure 3. Distribution of self-reported smoking status (A) and amount (B) stratified by drinking categories. All proportions are based on effective numbers, and never smokers account for the proportions not reflected in the graphs. C indicates control group; CP, chronic pancreatitis group; RAP, recurrent acute pancreatitis group.

Continue reading

The timing of surgical intervention in chronic pancreatitis

Issa Y, Kempeneers MA, Bruno MJ, et al. Effect of Early Surgery vs Endoscopy-First Approach on Pain in Patients With Chronic Pancreatitis: The ESCAPE Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2020 Jan 21;323(3):237-247.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: Among 88 patients who were randomized (mean age, 52 years; 21 (24%) women), 85 (97%) completed the trial. During 18 months of follow-up, patients in the early surgery group had a lower Izbicki pain score than patients in the group randomized to receive the endoscopy-first approach group (37 vs 49; between-group difference, -12 points [95% CI, -22 to -2]; P = .02). Complete or partial pain relief at end of follow-up was achieved in 23 of 40 patients (58%) in the early surgery vs 16 of 41 (39%)in the endoscopy-first approach group (P = .10). The total number of interventions was lower in the early surgery group (median, 1 vs 3; P < .001). Treatment complications (27% vs 25%), mortality (0% vs 0%), hospital admissions, pancreatic function, and quality of life were not significantly different between early surgery and the endoscopy-first approach.

Conclusions and relevance: Among patients with chronic pancreatitis, early surgery compared with an endoscopy-first approach resulted in lower pain scores when integrated over 18 months. However, further research is needed to assess persistence of differences over time and to replicate the study findings.

Continue reading

Article of interest: Initial management of acute pancreatitis

Chaitoff A, Cifu AS, Niforatos JD. Initial Management of Acute Pancreatitis. JAMA. 2020 May 7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2177. [Epub ahead of print]

Full-text for Emory users.

Major recommendations:

  • In patients with acute pancreatitis, early oral feeding as tolerated (within 24 hours) is recommended (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
  • If patients are unable to tolerate oral feeding, enteral (oral or enteral tube) rather than parenteral nutrition is recommended (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
  • In patients with acute biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy should be performed during the initial admission rather than after discharge (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
  • In patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, a brief alcohol intervention should be performed during the initial admission (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
  • In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis and necrotizing acute pancreatitis, the guidelines suggest against use of prophylactic antibiotics (conditional recommendation; low evidence).

Preoperative portal vein embolization for major liver resection

Rassam F, et al. Functional and volumetric assessment of liver segments after portal
vein embolization: Differences in hypertrophy response. Surgery. 2019 Apr;165(4):686-695.

Full-text for Emory users.

RESULTS: A total of 90 patients underwent portal vein embolization of the right liver. After 3 weeks, there was a significant increase in both volumetric and functional share of the future remnant liver (both P < .01). The increase in functional share exceeded the increase in volumetric share (P < .01). The median functional contribution of segment 4 after portal vein embolization was 41.5% (31.7%-48.7%) of the nonembolized lobe. Preoperative chemotherapy was not a significant predictor of the increase in function or volume. Compared with benign lesions, malignant diseases were significant negative predictors of the functional response.

Continue reading

Rate of postoperative biliary complications during major liver resection reduced by intraoperative air leak test

Zimmitti G, Vauthey JN, et al. Systematic use of an intraoperative air leak test
at the time of major liver resection reduces the rate of postoperative biliary
complications. J Am Coll Surg. 2013 Dec;217(6):1028-37.

Free full-text.

STUDY DESIGN: Rates of postoperative biliary complications were compared among 103 patients who underwent ALT and 120 matched patients operated on before ALT was used. All study patients underwent major hepatectomy without bile duct resection at 3 high-volume hepatobiliary centers between 2008 and 2012. The ALT was performed by placement of a transcystic cholangiogram catheter to inject air into the biliary tree, the upper abdomen was filled with saline, and the distal common bile duct was manually occluded. Uncontrolled bile ducts were identified by localization of air bubbles at the transection surface and were directly repaired.

RESULTS: The 2 groups were similar in diagnosis, chemotherapy use, tumor number and size, resection extent, surgery duration, and blood loss (all, p > 0.05). Single or multiple uncontrolled bile ducts were intraoperatively detected and repaired in 62.1% of ALT vs 8.3% of non-ALT patients (p < 0.001). This resulted in a lower rate of postoperative bile leaks in ALT (1.9%) vs non-ALT patients (10.8%; p = 0.008). Independent risk factors for postoperative bile leaks included extended hepatectomy (p = 0.031), caudate resection (p = 0.02), and not performing ALT (p = 0.002) (odds ratio = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.8; odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.3; and odds ratio = 11.8; 95% CI, 2.4-58.8, respectively).


More forthcoming…

Legacy papers of portal hypertension surgery at Emory: Distal splenorenal shunts

Warren WD, Millikan WJ Jr, Henderson JM, Wright L, Kutner M, Smith RB 3rd, Fulenwider JT, Salam AA, Galambos JT. Ten years portal hypertensive surgery at Emory. Results and new perspectives. Ann Surg. 1982 May;195(5):530-42.

Smith RB 3rd, Warren WD, Salam AA, Millikan WJ, Ansley JD, Galambos JT, Kutner M, Bain RP. Dacron interposition shunts for portal hypertension. An analysis of morbidity correlates.Ann Surg. 1980 Jul;192(1):9-17.

Rikkers LF, Rudman D, Galambos JT, Fulenwider JT, Millikan WJ, Kutner M, Smith RB 3rd, Salam AA, Sones PJ Jr, Warren WD. A randomized, controlled trial of the distal splenorenal shunt. Ann Surg. 1978 Sep;188(3):271-82.

Galambos JT, Warren WD, Rudman D, Smith RB 3rd, Salam AA. Selective and total
shunts in the treatment of bleeding varices. A randomized controlled trial. N Engl J Med. 1976 Nov 11;295(20):1089-95.

Continue reading

Consensus guidelines for the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas

This week’s discussion included information about the utility of the Fukuoka criteria.


Srinivasan N, et al. Systematic review of the clinical utility and validity of the Sendai and Fukuoka Consensus Guidelines for the management of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms of the pancreas.HPB (Oxford). 2018 Jun;20(6):497-504.

Free full-text. 

RESULTS: Ten studies evaluating the FCG, 8 evaluating the SCG and 4 evaluating both guidelines were included. In 14 studies evaluating the FCG, out of a total of 2498 neoplasms, 849 were malignant and 1649 were benign neoplasms. Pooled analysis showed that 751 of 1801 (42%) FCG+ve neoplasms were malignant and 599 neoplasms of 697 (86%) FCG-ve neoplasms were benign. PPV of the high risk and worrisome risk groups were 465/986 (47%) and 239/520 (46%) respectively. In 12 studies evaluating the SCG, 1234 neoplasms were analyzed of which 388 (31%) were malignant and 846 (69%) were benign. Pooled analysis demonstrated that 265 of 802 (33%) SCG+ve neoplasms were malignant and 238 of 266 SCG-ve (90%) neoplasms were benign.

CONCLUSION: The FCG had a higher positive predictive value (PPV) compared to the SCG. However, the negative predictive value (NPV) of the FCG was slightly lower than that of the SCG. Malignant and even invasive IPMN may be missed according to both guidelines.

Continue reading

Postoperative pancreatic fistula

This week’s discussion included risk scoring and management of postoperative pancreatic fistula.


Nahm CB, Connor SJ, Samra JS, Mittal A. Postoperative pancreatic fistula: a
review of traditional and emerging concepts. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar
15;11:105-118.

Prediction: “Biochemical markers of POP after pancreatic resection are evident from the first postoperative day. These include serum amylase and lipase, and urinary trypsinogen-2. In an observational study of 61 patients undergoing pancreatic resection, the presence of POP on the first postoperative day as determined by these markers was found to be a strong predictor of the development of POPF (OR 17.81, 95% CI 2.17–145.9) [128]

Continue reading