Post-Cholecystectomy Biliary Complications

Pesce A, et al. Iatrogenic bile duct injury: impact and management challenges. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2019 Mar 6;12:121-128. Free full-text.

“Iatrogenic BDIs represent a serious complication which can be brought on by cholecystectomy. The errors leading to laparoscopic bile duct lesions stem principally from misperception of the biliary anatomy. Any effort toward the reduction of the risk profile of everyday cholecystectomy is appreciated. The key points to successful treatment are characterized by early recognition, control of any intra-abdominal fluid collection and infection, nutritional balance, multidisciplinary approach, and surgical repair by an experienced surgeon in biliary reconstruction.”


Pekolj J, et al. Intraoperative management and repair of bile duct injuries sustained during 10,123 laparoscopic cholecystectomies in a high-volume referral center. J Am Coll Surg. 2013 May;216(5):894-901. Full-text for Emory users.

Results: Among 10,123 LC performed during the study period, 19 patients had a BDI sustained during the procedure. Intraoperative cholangiography was routinely used. Bile duct injury was diagnosed intraoperatively in 17 patients (89.4%). Mean age was 56.4 years (range 18 to 81 years) and 15 patients were women (88%). According to the Strasberg classification of BDI, there were 3 type C lesions, 12 type D lesions, and 2 type E2 lesions. There were no associated vascular injuries. Twelve cases (71%) were converted to open surgery. The repairs included 10 primary biliary closures, 4 Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomies, 2 end to end anastomosis, and 1 laparoscopic transpapillary drainage. Postoperative complications occurred in 5 patients (29.4%). During the follow-up period, early biliary strictures developed in 2 patients (11.7%) and were treated by percutaneous dilation and a Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy with satisfactory long-term results.

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Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered anatomy

Shimatani M, et al. Recent advances of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using balloon assisted endoscopy for pancreaticobiliary diseases in patients with surgically altered anatomy: Therapeutic strategy and management of difficult cases. Dig Endosc. 2021 Sep;33(6):912-923.

Free full-text.

Abstract: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis and interventions in biliopancreatic diseases. However, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy (SAA) appears to be more difficult compared to cases with normal anatomy. Since the production of a balloon enteroscope (BE) for small intestine disorders, BE had also been used for biliopancreatic diseases in patients with SAA. Since the development of BE-assisted ERCP, the outcomes of procedures, such as stone extraction or drainage, have been reported as favorable. Recently, an interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), such as EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD), has been developed and is available mainly for patients with difficult cases of ERCP. It is a good option for patients with SAA. The effectiveness of interventional EUS for patients with SAA has been reported. Both BE-assisted ERCP and interventional EUS have advantages and disadvantages. The choice of procedure should be individualized to the patient’s condition or the expertise of the endoscopists. The aim of this review article is to discuss recent advances in interventional ERCP and EUS for patients with SAA.

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Article of Interest: Management of intussusception in patients with melanoma

Perez MC, Sun J, Farley C, Han D, Sun AH, Narayan D, Lowe M, Delman KA, Messina JL, Gonzalez RJ, Sondak VK, Khushalani NI, Zager JS. Management of intussusception in patients with melanoma. J Surg Oncol. 2019 Jun;119(7):897-902.

Full-text for Emory users.

Background: Increased cross-sectional imaging for surveillance of metastatic melanoma has led to more diagnoses of asymptomatic intussusception.

Methods: We performed a multi-institutional retrospective review of patient records with a history of metastatic melanoma and a diagnosis of intussusception. Patients were divided into three groups: 1) asymptomatic patients without current evidence of melanoma (no evidence of disease [NED]); 2) asymptomatic intussusception and known active metastatic melanoma; 3) symptomatic intussusception and known active metastatic melanoma; the number of patients requiring surgery and intraoperative findings were recorded.

Results: We reviewed 73 patients diagnosed with intussusception from 2004 to 2017. Among asymptomatic patients with NED (n = 16), 14 spontaneously resolved and 2 underwent pre-emptive surgery without abnormal intraoperative findings. Of asymptomatic patients with active metastatic disease (n = 32), 25 were initially observed and 7 underwent pre-emptive surgery and 9 of the 25 initially observed patients required surgery for development of symptoms. In this group, all 16 patients undergoing surgery (50% of the group) had intraoperative findings of intussusception and/or metastatic intestinal melanoma.. All symptomatic patients with metastatic melanoma (n = 25) underwent surgery; all had intraoperative findings of intussusception and/or metastatic melanoma except 1 (Meckel’s diverticulum).

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Distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) and arterial reconstruction: Techniques and outcomes

Addeo P, Guerra M, Bachellier P. Distal pancreatectomy with en bloc celiac axis resection (DP-CAR) and arterial reconstruction: Techniques and outcomes. J Surg Oncol. 2021 Jun;123(7):1592-1598.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: Sixty consecutive DP-CARs were reviewed. Most patients underwent induction chemotherapy (85%) based on FOLFIRINOX protocol (80.3%). The hepatic artery was reconstructed in 50 patients (83.3%). The left gastric artery was reconstructed in 4 and preserved in 14 patients. A venous resection was associated during 44 DP-CARs (36 segmental venous resections/8 lateral venous resections). Ninety days mortality was 5.0% with 48.3% (n = 29) overall rate of morbidity. Postoperative outcomes in term of mortality, morbidity, and ischemic events between patients with and without arterial reconstruction were similar despite a higher rate of venous resection (81% vs. 40%; p = 0.005) and more complex cases (Mayo clinic DP-CARs class 1B, 2A, and 3A) in the reconstructed group.

Conclusion: Arterial reconstruction represents a safe surgical option during DP-CAR to lessen postoperative ischemic events. This technique, reserved to high volume centers expert in vascular resection during pancreatectomy, deserves further comparison with standard technique in a larger setting.

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Retained Gastric Antrum Syndrome

Emory users, open this instance of PubMed, then click the links below for full-text article access.

Dumon K, Dempsey DT. (2019). Postgastrectomy Syndromes. Shackelford’s Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, 8th ed.: 719-734.

“Hypergastrinemia after distal gastrectomy can be caused by gastrinoma or retained antrum. In the latter there is residual antral tissue left in continuity with the duodenal stump after gastric resection with Billroth II anastomosis. The G cells in this retained antral tissue are not exposed to luminal acid, resulting in continuous secretion of gastrin and intense stimulation of acid production by parietal cells in the proximal gastric remnant. The exposure of the unbuffered jejunum to this high acid level at the Billroth II GJ results in marginal ulcer (see Fig. 62.12B ).

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What is the utility of routine intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy?

SAGES still recommends that practicing general surgeons learn how to do IOC (though once a surgeon is past their learning curve, it is not necessarily routinely recommended that it be done ‘routinely’).


Hope WW, et al. SAGES clinical spotlight review: intraoperative cholangiography. Surg Endosc. 2017 May;31(5): 2007-2016. Full-text for Emory users.

“The following clinical spotlight review regarding the intraoperative cholangiogram is intended for physicians who manage and treat gallbladder/biliary pathology and perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is meant to critically review the technique of intraoperative cholangiography, alternatives for intraoperative biliary imaging, and the available evidence supporting their safety and efficacy.”

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Article of interest: Counterclockwise rotation of Roux-en-Y limb significantly reduces internal herniation in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB)

Nandipati KC, Lin E, Husain F, Srinivasan J, Sweeney JF, Davis SS. Counterclockwise rotation of Roux-en-Y limb significantly reduces internal herniation in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB). J Gastrointest Surg. 2012 Apr;16(4):675-81.

Full-text for Emory users.

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