Pathologies of acute tubular necrosis

Perazella MA. Clinical Approach to Diagnosing Acute and Chronic Tubulointerstitial Disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis. 2017 Mar;24(2):57-63. Full-text for Emory users.

Abbreviations: ATIN, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis; CTIN, chronic
tubulointerstitial nephritis; NSAIDs, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory
drugs; PPIs, proton pump inhibitors; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosis;
TIN, tubulointerstitial nephritis; TINU, tubulointerstitial nephritis
uveitis; DRESS, drug related eosinophilia systemic syndrome. (Perazella, p. 59)
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Parathyroidectomy in the management of tertiary hyperparathyroidism

Ferreira GF, et al. Parathyroidectomy after kidney transplantation: short-and long-term impact on renal function. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2011;66(3):431-5. Free full-text.

Materials and methods: This was a retrospective case-controlled study. Nineteen patients with persistent hyperparathyroidism underwent parathyroidectomy due to hypercalcemia. The control group included 19 patients undergoing various general and urological operations.

Results: In the parathyroidectomy group, a significant increase in serum creatinine from 1.58 to 2.29 mg/dl (P < 0.05) was noted within the first 5 days after parathyroidectomy. In the control group, a statistically insignificant increase in serum creatinine from 1.49 to 1.65 mg/dl occurred over the same time period. The long-term mean serum creatinine level was not statistically different from baseline either in the parathyroidectomy group (final follow-up creatinine = 1.91 mg/dL) or in the non-parathyroidectomy group (final follow-up creatinine = 1.72 mg/dL).

Conclusion: Although renal function deteriorates in the acute period following parathyroidectomy, long-term stabilization occurs, with renal function similar to both preoperative function and to a control group of kidney-transplanted patients who underwent other general surgical operations by the final follow up.

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Colorectal surgery in cirrhotic patients

Paolino J, Steinhagen RM. Colorectal surgery in cirrhotic patients. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014 Jan 15;2014:239293. Free full-text.

Patients with cirrhosis have a greater risk of morbidity and mortality following colorectal surgery. Therefore, preoperative medical optimization and risk assessment using criteria such as the MELD score are vital in preventing complications. Some risk factors include age, urgency of surgery, and ASA score. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are related to portal hypertension, ascites, infection, and anastomotic and stomal complications. This review highlights the assessment of risk and perioperative management of cirrhotic patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

ISPD peritonitis guideline recommendations: 2022 update on prevention & treatment

Li PK, et al. ISPD peritonitis guideline recommendations: 2022 update on prevention and treatment. Perit Dial Int. 2022 Mar;42(2):110-153. Free full-text.

Abstract: The ISPD 2022 updated recommendations have revised and clarified definitions for refractory peritonitis, relapsing peritonitis, peritonitis-associated catheter removal, PD-associated haemodialysis transfer, peritonitis-associated death and peritonitis-associated hospitalisation. New peritonitis categories and outcomes including pre-PD peritonitis, enteric peritonitis, catheter-related peritonitis and medical cure are defined. The new targets recommended for overall peritonitis rate should be no more than 0.40 episodes per year at risk and the percentage of patients free of peritonitis per unit time should be targeted at >80% per year.

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Loeys-Dietz Syndrome

Velchev JD, Van Laer L, Luyckx I, Dietz H, Loeys B. Loeys-Dietz Syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2021;1348:251-264. Full-text for Emory users.

From: Table 11.1. Clinical features at initial diagnosis of LDS. (Velchev JD, et al., p. 253.)

  • Vascular findings
    • Arterial tortuosity 92%
      • Most common in head and neck vessels
        • Carotids (55%)
        • Vertebral (56%)
        • Intracranial (37%)
        • Ascending aorta (5%), aortic arch (10%)
        • Descending thoracic (4%) or abdominal
        • (7%) Ao, also other vessels (e.g. iliacs)
  • Aneurysms
    • Aorta
      • Root 87%
      • Ascending 27%
      • Arch 10%
      • Desc thoracic 15%
      • Abdominal 12%
    • Vessel beyond Ao 30%
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Step-up vs open necrosectomy for necrotizing pancreatitis

Here are recent publications on the management of necrotizing pancreatitis.


BACKGROUND: The 2010 randomized PANTER trial in (infected) necrotizing pancreatitis found a minimally invasive step-up approach to be superior to primary open necrosectomy for the primary combined endpoint of mortality and major complications, but long-term results are unknown.

NEW FINDINGS: With extended follow-up, in the step-up group, patients had fewer incisional hernias, less exocrine insufficiency and a trend towards less endocrine insufficiency. No differences between groups were seen for recurrent or chronic pancreatitis, pancreatic endoscopic or surgical interventions, quality of life or costs.

IMPACT: Considering both short and long-term results, the step-up approach is superior to open necrosectomy for the treatment of infected necrotizing pancreatitis.

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Management of pancreatic injuries

Ho VP, Patel NJ, Bokhari F, et al. Management of adult pancreatic injuries: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Jan;82(1):185-199. Free-full text.

In summary, we propose the following recommendations:

  1. For adult patients with grade I or II injury to the pancreas identified on CT scan, we conditionally recommend nonoperative management.
  2. For adult patients with grade III or IV injury to the pancreas identified on CT scan, we conditionally recommend operative intervention.
  3. For adult patients with grade I or II injuries to the pancreas who are undergoing an operation, we conditionally recommend non-resectional management.
  4. For adult patients with grade III or IV injuries to the pancreas who are undergoing an operation, we conditionally recommend resectional management.
  5. For adult patients with grade V injuries to the pancreas who are undergoing an operation, we give no recommendation regarding whether a pancreaticoduodenectomy or a surgical procedure other than pancreaticoduodenectomy should be performed.
  6. For adult patients who have undergone an operation for pancreatic trauma, we conditionally recommend against the routine use of octreotide prophylaxis.
  7. For adult patients undergoing a distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic trauma, we give no recommendation regarding whether routine splenectomy or splenic preservation should be performed.