Videos: The Ladd Procedure for Adult Malrotation With Volvulus

Brady JT, Kendrick DE, Barksdale EM, Reynolds HL. The Ladd Procedure for Adult Malrotation With Volvulus. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Mar;61(3):410.

“Intestinal malrotation is a rare condition that develops during fetal development because of incomplete intestinal rotation or a lack of intestinal rotation around the superior mesenteric artery. Presentation in adulthood, in general, is abnormal and presentation with volvulus is rare. We demonstrate an open Ladd procedure with inversion appendectomy and reduction of paraduodenal hernia of an adult with malrotation with volvulus.”

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Article of interest: Association of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score With Mortality in Emergency General Surgery Patients

Havens JM, Columbus AB, Olufajo OA, Askari R, Salim A, Christopher KB. Association of Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score With Mortality in Emergency General Surgery Patients. JAMA Surg. 2016 Jul 20;151(7):e160789. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2016.0789.

Results: A total of 13 552 EGS patients received critical care; of these, 707 (5%) (mean [SD] age at hospital admission, 56.6 [14.2] years; 64% male; 79% white) had CLD and data to determine MELD score at ICU admission. The median MELD score was 14 (interquartile range, 10-20). Overall 90-day mortality was 30.1%. The adjusted odds ratio of 90-day mortality for each 10-point increase in MELD score was 1.63 (95% CI, 1.34-1.98). A decrease in MELD score of more than 3 in the 48 hours following ICU admission was associated with a 2.2-fold decrease in 90-day mortality (odds ratio = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.22-0.98).

Conclusions and relevance: In this study, MELD score was associated with 90-day mortality following EGS in patients with CLD. The MELD score can be used as a prognostic factor in this patient population and should be used in preoperative risk prediction models and when counseling EGS patients on the risks and benefits of operative intervention.

Commentary: Zarrinpar A. Mind MELD or Ignore It at Your Peril. JAMA Surg. 2016 Jul 20;151(7):e160839. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2016.0839.

NIH Treatment Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients With COVID-19

Antithrombotic Therapy in Patients With COVID-19

(Last Updated: February 11, 2021.)

For hospitalized patients with COVID-19, prophylactic dose anticoagulation should be prescribed unless contraindicated (e.g., a patient has active hemorrhage or severe thrombocytopenia) (AIII). Although data supporting this recommendation are limited, a retrospective study showed reduced mortality in patients who received prophylactic anticoagulation, particularly if the patient had a sepsis-induced coagulopathy score ≥4.4 For those without COVID-19, anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy should not be used to prevent arterial thrombosis outside of the standard of care (AIII). Anticoagulation is routinely used to prevent arterial thromboembolism in patients with heart arrhythmias. Although there are reports of strokes and myocardial infarction in patients with COVID-19, the incidence of these events is unknown.

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Management of malignant hyperthermia

Hopkins PM, Girard T, Dalay S, Jenkins B, Thacker A, Patteril M, McGrady E. Malignant hyperthermia 2020: Guideline from the Association of Anaesthetists. Anaesthesia. 2021 May;76(5):655-664. Free full-text.


Kim KSM, Kriss RS, Tautz TJ. Malignant Hyperthermia: A Clinical Review. Adv Anesth. 2019 Dec;37:35-51. Full-text for Emory users.

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For your review: Desmoplastic melanoma

Nicolson NG, Han D. Desmoplastic melanoma. J Surg Oncol. 2019 Jan;119(2):208-215. doi: 10.1002/jso.25317. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare melanoma variant that has unique biology and pathology compared with conventional melanoma (non-DM). Importantly, DM is classified into pure and mixed histologic subtypes, which have been correlated with outcomes. Management of DM broadly mirrors that of non-DM; however, there are unique considerations for DM that influence treatment approaches. This paper will provide a contemporary overview of this disease and will review the literature regarding the management of DM.

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Article of interest: Spotlight on the utility of the Oncotype DX ® breast cancer assay.

Siow ZR, De Boer RH, Lindeman GJ, Mann GB. Spotlight on the utility of the Oncotype DX® breast cancer assay. Int J Womens Health. 2018 Feb 21;10:89-100.

Summary: Genomic assays such as Oncotype DX have changed the landscape for the treatment of ER-positive early breast cancer. In a USA-based study, there has been a 13% decline in the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in 2006–2008, which has been largely attributed to the introduction of the Oncotype DX in 2004.78 While the Oncotype DX is expensive, the potential cost savings from chemotherapy avoidance and reduced exposure to the side effects of cytotoxic therapy appear to be cost-effective in most jurisdictions. The development and eventual validation of other genomic assays could potentially reduce test costs. While Oncotype DX is currently well validated in the node-negative population, its optimal use remains to be defined for cohorts of patients with intermediate-risk RS, as well as for patients with lymph node-positive disease. Results from the prospective TAILORx and RxPONDER trials will help shed light on these questions.

Sentinel lymph node surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in node-positive breast cancer

Cavalcante FP, Millen EC, Zerwes FP, Novita GG. Role of Axillary Surgery After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy. JCO Glob Oncol. 2020 Feb;6:238-241.

“In a US study, associating selective localization and removal of clipped nodes with SLN dissection, known as targeted axillary dissection, reduced false-negative rates to approximately 2% compared with 4% with removal of the clipped lymph node alone. [20] However, patients are required to undergo two procedures: placement of the clip before systemic treatment and marking it to identify the lymph node during surgery. A retrospective analysis showed that in patients with clipped lymph nodes who were referred for preoperative marking, the clip failed to be identified in 20% of those patients, even when computed tomography was used, with the additional risk of the clip not being removed during surgery. [21] Therefore, the use of clips is controversial, because it is sometimes impossible to remove the clip alone. Despite the association between the number of lymph nodes and false-negative rates, there are still no convincing data regarding clinical outcome.”


Caudle AS, Yang WT, Krishnamurthy S, et al. Improved Axillary Evaluation Following Neoadjuvant Therapy for Patients With Node-Positive Breast Cancer Using Selective Evaluation of Clipped Nodes: Implementation of Targeted Axillary Dissection. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Apr 1;34(10):1072-8.

Results: Of 208 patients enrolled in this study, 191 underwent ALND, with residual disease identified in 120 (63%). The clipped node revealed metastases in 115 patients, resulting in an FNR of 4.2% (95% CI, 1.4 to 9.5) for the clipped node. In patients undergoing SLND and ALND (n = 118), the FNR was 10.1% (95% CI, 4.2 to 19.8), which included seven false-negative events in 69 patients with residual disease. Adding evaluation of the clipped node reduced the FNR to 1.4% (95% CI, 0.03 to 7.3; P = .03). The clipped node was not retrieved as an SLN in 23% (31 of 134) of patients, including six with negative SLNs but metastasis in the clipped node. TAD followed by ALND was performed in 85 patients, with an FNR of 2.0% (1 of 50; 95% CI, 0.05 to 10.7).

Conclusion: Marking nodes with biopsy-confirmed metastatic disease allows for selective removal and improves pathologic evaluation for residual nodal disease after chemotherapy.

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Total neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer

Petrelli F, et al. Total Neoadjuvant Therapy in Rectal Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Treatment Outcomes. Ann Surg. 2020 Mar;271(3):440-448.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: A total of 28 studies (3 retrospective and 25 prospective for a total of 3579 patients) were included in the final analysis (n = 2688 treated with TNT and n = 891 with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy therapy). The pooled pCR rate was 22.4% (95% CI 19.4%-25.7%) in all patients treated with TNT (n = 27 studies with data available). In n = 10 comparative studies with data available, TNT was found to increase the odds of pCR by 39% (1.40, 95% CI 1.08-1.81, P = 0.01).

Conclusions: The addition of induction or consolidation chemotherapy to standard neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy results in a higher pCR rate. Given that the comparative analysis was derived from few randomized publications, large confirmatory trials should be carried out before a strong recommendation is made in favor of TNT.

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Article of interest: The Landmark Series: MSLT-1, MSLT-2 and DeCOG (Management of Lymph Nodes)

Bello DM, Faries MB. The Landmark Series: MSLT-1, MSLT-2 and DeCOG (Management of Lymph Nodes). Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jan;27(1):15-21.

Full-text for Emory users.

Management of regional lymph nodes in patients with melanoma has evolved significantly in recent years. The value of nodal intervention, long utilized for its perceived therapeutic benefit, has now shifted to that of a critical prognostic procedure used to guide clinical decision making. This review focuses on the three landmark, randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of surgery for regional lymph nodes in melanoma: Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial I (MSLT-I), German Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group-Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (DeCOG-SLT), and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial II (MSLT-II).

Clinical Practice Guidelines: The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hemorrhoids

Davis BR, Lee-Kong SA, Migaly J, Feingold DL, Steele SR. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Mar;61(3):284-292.

Full-text for Emory users.

“Symptoms related to hemorrhoids are very common in the Western hemisphere and other industrialized societies. Although published estimates of prevalence are varied,1,2 it represents one of the most common medical and surgical disease processes encountered in the United States, resulting in >2.2-million outpatient evaluations per year.3 A large number of diverse symptoms may be, correctly or incorrectly, attributed to hemorrhoids by both patients and referring physicians. As a result, it is important to identify symptomatic hemorrhoids as the underlying source of the anorectal symptom and to have a clear understanding of the evaluation and management of this disease process.These guidelines address both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the management of hemorrhoidal disease.”

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