Visceral Hypersensitivity

Zhou Q, Verne GN. New insights into visceral hypersensitivity–clinical implications in IBS. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Jun;8(6):349-55.

Key points

  • Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity are present in some patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders
  • Injury to visceral afferents is the most common underlying cause of visceral hypersensitivity that is maintained by either peripheral and/or central nervous system mechanisms
  • Animal models of hypersensitivity have been used to examine the neural mechanisms of hypersensitivity following inflammatory injury, such as alterations in the N-methyl, D-aspartate receptor, dorsal horn neurons or c-Fos
  • Increased intestinal permeability might lead to hypersensitivity and abdominal pain in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders
  • Functional gastrointestinal disorders are similar to other chronic pain disorders in which persistent nociceptive mechanisms are activated

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Pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

Shah MM, Martin BM, Stetler JL, Patel AD, Davis SS, Sarmiento JM, Lin E. Reconstruction Options for Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Patients with Prior Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2017 Nov;27(11):1185-1191.

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“In summary, of the 13 patients that have been described in the literature who underwent PD after RYGB, 7 (54%) of these patients underwent reconstruction, similar to our preferred approach (Fig. 2), which involved remnant gastrectomy with the BP limb forming the BP anastomoses. Overall, 8 (61.5%) of the 13 patients had remnant gastrectomy. Five patients did not have a remnant gastrectomy. There are 10 patients in the literature where the surgeon attempted resecting the gastric remnant, and 8 (80%) of these patients had successful remnant gastrectomy. However, based on the published literature, this is clearly a small sampling of what might have actually been performed. We have had three such patients where we performed PD in patients with prior RYGB (similar to Fig. 2a). In all patients, we had adequate BP limb length for the anastomoses. The patients had early recovery of bowel function and were discharged from the hospital on or before postoperative day 5 without any significant complications. Continue reading

Iatrogenic ureteral injury in colorectal cancer surgery

Andersen P, et al. Iatrogenic ureteral injury in colorectal cancer surgery: a nationwide study comparing laparoscopic and open approaches. Surg Endosc. 2015 Jun;29(6): 1406-12.

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Results: A total of 18,474 patients had a resection for colorectal cancer. Eighty-two ureteral injuries were related to colorectal surgery. The rate of ureteral injuries in the entire cohort was 0.44 %, with 37 (0.59 %) injuries in the laparoscopic group (n = 6,291) and 45 (0.37 %) injuries in the open group (n = 12,183), (P = 0.03). No difference in ureteral injury was found in relation to surgical approach in colon cancer patients. In rectum cancer patients (n = 5,959), the laparoscopic approach was used in 1,899 patients, and 19 (1.00 %) had ureteral injuries, whereas 17 (0.42 %) of 4,060 patients who underwent an open resection had a ureteral injury. In multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, ASA score, BMI, tumor stage, preoperative chemo-radiation, calendar year, and specialty of the surgeon, the laparoscopic approach was associated with an increased risk of ureteral injury, OR = 2.67; 95 % CI 1.26-5.65.

Conclusion: In this nationwide study laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer with curative intent was associated with a significantly increased risk of iatrogenic ureteral injury compared to open surgery.

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Mortality and treatment outcome following surgical interventions for acute mesenteric ischemia.

Beaulieu RJ, et al. Comparison of open and endovascular treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan;59(1):159-64. Erratum in: J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jul;60(1):273.

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Results: Of 23,744 patients presenting with AMI, 4665 underwent interventional treatment from 2005 through 2009. Of these patients, 57.1% were female, and the mean age was 70.5 years. A total of 679 patients underwent vascular intervention; 514 (75.7%) underwent open surgery and 165 (24.3%) underwent endovascular treatment overall during the study period. The proportion of patients undergoing endovascular repair increased from 11.9% of patients in 2005 to 30.0% in 2009. Severity of comorbidities, as measured by the Charlson index, did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Mortality was significantly more commonly associated with open revascularization compared with endovascular intervention (39.3% vs 24.9%; P = .01). Length of stay was also significantly longer in the patient group undergoing open revascularization (12.9 vs 17.1 days; P = .006). During the study time period, 14.4% of patients undergoing endovascular procedures required bowel resection compared with 33.4% for open revascularization (P < .001). Endovascular repair was also less commonly associated with requirement for TPN support (13.7% vs 24.4%; P = .025).

Conclusions: Endovascular intervention for AMI had increased significantly in the modern era. Among AMI patients undergoing revascularization, endovascular treatment was associated with decreased mortality and shorter length of stay. Furthermore, endovascular intervention was associated with lower rates of bowel resection and need for TPN. Further research is warranted to determine if increased use of endovascular repair could improve overall and gastrointestinal outcomes among patients requiring vascular repair for AMI.

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Extramammary Paget’s Disease

Herrel LA, Weiss AD, Goodman M, Johnson TV, Osunkoya AO, Delman KA, Master VA. Extramammary Paget’s disease in males: survival outcomes in 495 patients. Ann Surg Oncol. 2015 May;22(5):1625-30.

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Results: Incidence rates of EMPD in men have been increasing with an annual percent change of +3.2 % (p < .0002) since 1978. Incidence of EMPD in blacks was nearly four times lower (p = .0003) and in Asians/Pacific islanders four times higher (p < .0001), relative to whites. Overall survival among 495 patients was 60.2 % at 120 months post-diagnosis. On multivariate analysis, significant factors negatively impacting survival were primary site in the perianal region compared to penoscrotal and truncal lesions (both p < .001), age older than 75 years (p < .001), and presence of distant versus localized disease (p = .018). Survival did not differ by race or presence of additional cancer.

Conclusions: Survival in men with EMPD is lower among those with distant disease and primary tumors located in the perianal region. The reasons for increasing EMPD incidence over time and for the racial disparities in disease occurrence require further study.

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Liver hanging maneuver: an anatomic and clinical review.

Gaujoux S, et al. Liver hanging maneuver: an anatomic and clinical review. Am J Surg. 2007 Apr;193(4):488-92.

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“LHM is as an effective and safe method of guiding hepatic transection to the IVC during right hepatectomies with a feasibility rate up to 95% and minor bleeding in 0% to 6% of cases. According to small series and experts’ opinions, LHM would improve parenchymal transection by reducing operative time and blood loss. The tape would ensure a linearly cut surface with IVC safer protection, better exposure, and hemostasis of the deeper plane. Limited remnant liver mobilization could reduce the risk for malignant dissemination and improve liver function. Hepatectomies for huge tumor with diaphragm adhesions could be facilitated.”

Glissonian approach during hepathectomy

Chapuis-Roux E, et al. Glissonian approach during hepathectomy (with video). J Visc Surg. 2015 Jun;152(3):199-200.

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“To facilitate liver resection, a technique of glissonian approach was developed [2]. The glissonian approach during hepatectomy is a selective vascular clamping procedure reproducible requiring preoperative imaging data study and intraoperative ultrasound Doppler [3] and permeability with US air test [4]. In practice, this approach is feasible in about 80% of patients due to portal anatomical abnormalities.”

Article of interest: The Freemartin Cattle and Clinical Transplantation: From the Ancients to Modern Day

Lovasik BP. The Freemartin Cattle and Clinical Transplantation: From the Ancients to Modern Day. Transplantation. 2020 Aug;104(8):1537-1541.

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This historical retrospective explores the study of the freemartin condition and its impact on the discovery of immunologic tolerance and the field of transplant surgery-from the ancient Romans, to early modern anatomists Valsalva, Scarpa, and Hunter, to contemporary immunologists Owen, Medawar, and Billingham, and to legendary transplant surgeon Joseph Murray. The legacy of freemartin cattle in the understanding of acquired tolerance and transplant immunology represents generations of scientific inquiry guided by careful observation and occasional serendipity, and the present-day immunologists and surgeons exploring immune transplant tolerance owe much to the history of the freemartin, several millennia in the making.

Patient Selection for Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation in the Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis

Morgan KA, Lancaster WP, Owczarski SM, et al. Patient Selection for Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation in the Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2018 Apr;226(4):446-451.

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Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients (141 women, aged 40.3 years, BMI 26.5 kg/m2) underwent TPIAT. Mean duration of disease before operation was 8.1 years. Fifty-six (29%) patients had pancreatic operations before TPIAT, 37 (19%) patients were diabetic preoperatively, and 52 (27%) patients were smokers. A mean of 3,253 islet equivalents transplanted/kg were harvested. Insulin independence was achieved in 29%, 28%, and 23% of patients at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperative. Nonsmokers with a shorter duration of chronic pancreatitis and no earlier pancreas operation were more likely to be insulin free. Median number of preoperative emergency department visits and hospitalizations were 6.6 and 4.3 annually, respectively, compared with 0 at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperative. Median oral morphine equivalents were 214 mg/kg preoperation and 60, 64, 69, at 1, 2, 5 years postoperative. Preoperative, 1, 2, 5 years postoperative QOL scores were 29, 36, 34, and 33 (physical; p < 0.01) and 39, 44, 42, and 42 (mental health; p < 0.02). Genetic pancreatitis patients were more often narcotic free and had better QOL than patients with pancreatitis of other causes. At 5 years, overall survival was 92.3%.

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Management of enterocutaneous fistulas

Owen RM, Love TP, Perez SD, Srinivasan JK, Sharma J, Pollock JD, Haack CI, Sweeney JF, Galloway JR. Definitive surgical treatment of enterocutaneous fistula: outcomes of a 23-year experience. JAMA Surg. 2013 Feb;148(2):118-26.

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Figure 1. Causes of enterocutaneous fistula between 1987 and 2010. IBD indicates inflammatory bowel disease; other includes radiation, neoplasm, and trauma. Percentages may total more than 100% owing to the fact that some patients’ ECFs were secondary to multiple causes.

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