Essential Articles for Surgical Residents (2022-2023)

We are excited to share a new section titled “Essential Articles for Surgical Residents.”

Keeping up with surgical literature in residency can be challenging. This list was created to serve as an easily accessible, up-to-date, and evidence-based resource for residents.

The content has been curated by faculty from each department and is intended to supplement the standard educational curriculum of each rotation with current and relevant literature.




Portal HTNMillikan WJ Jr, et al. The Emory prospective randomized trial: selective versus nonselective shunt to control variceal bleeding. Ten year follow-up. Ann Surg. 1985 Jun;201(6):712-22. doi: 10.1097/00000658-198506000-00007. PMID: 3890781; PMCID: PMC1250801.
Salam AA, et al. Hemodynamic contrasts between selective and total portal-systemic decompression. Ann Surg. 1971 May;173(5):827-44. doi: 10.1097/00000658-197105000-00022. PMID: 4933303; PMCID: PMC1397510.
Wong M, Busuttil RW. Surgery in Patients with Portal Hypertension. Clin Liver Dis. 2019 Nov;23(4):755-780. doi: 10.1016/j.cld.2019.07.003. PMID: 31563221.
Non-HPB Cirrhosis General Surgery Endale Simegn A, et al. Perioperative management of patients with liver disease for non-hepatic surgery: A systematic review. Ann Med Surg (Lond). 2022 Feb 24;75:103397. doi: 10.1016/j.amsu.2022.103397. PMID: 35242334; PMCID: PMC8886011.

Johnson KM, et al. Incidence and Risk Factors of Postoperative Mortality and Morbidity After Elective Versus Emergent Abdominal Surgery in a National Sample of 8193 Patients With Cirrhosis. Ann Surg. 2021 Oct 1;274(4):e345-e354. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000003674. PMID: 31714310.

Neeff HP, et al. Early mortality and long-term survival after abdominal surgery in patients with liver cirrhosis. Surgery. 2014 Apr;155(4):623-32. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2013.11.009. PMID: 24468037.

Theruvath TP, Adams DB. Preoperative transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for extrahepatic surgery in cirrhosis. Am Surg. 2010 Jan;76(1):115-7. PMID: 20135955.
ECF & Surgical NutritionBoullata JI, et al. ASPEN Safe Practices for Enteral Nutrition Therapy [Formula: see text]. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2017 Jan;41(1):15-103. doi: 10.1177/0148607116673053. PMID: 27815525.

Compher C, et al. Guidelines for the provision of nutrition support therapy in the adult critically ill patient: The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2022 Jan;46(1):12-41. doi: 10.1002/jpen.2267. Erratum in: JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2022 Jun 19;: PMID: 34784064.

Owen RM, Love TP, Perez SD, Srinivasan JK, Sharma J, Pollock JD, Haack CI, Sweeney JF, Galloway JR. Definitive surgical treatment of enterocutaneous fistula: outcomes of a 23-year experience. JAMA Surg. 2013 Feb;148(2):118-26. doi: 10.1001/2013.jamasurg.153. PMID: 23560282
Inflammatory Bowel DiseaseBan KA, et al. Effect of Diagnosis on Outcomes in the Setting of Enhanced Recovery Protocols. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Jul;61(7):847-853. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000001102. PMID: 29878952.
Braga Neto MB, et al. Impact of Bariatric Surgery on the Long-term Disease Course of Inflammatory Bowel Disease. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2020 Jun 18;26(7):1089-1097. doi: 10.1093/ibd/izz236. PMID: 31613968; PMCID: PMC7534455.

Hanauer SB, et al.; ACCENT I Study Group. Maintenance infliximab for Crohn’s disease: the ACCENT I randomised trial. Lancet. 2002 May 4;359(9317):1541-9. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)08512-4. PMID: 12047962.
Lowe SC, et al. Declining Rates of Surgery for Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Era of Biologic Therapy. J Gastrointest Surg. 2021 Jan;25(1):211-219. doi: 10.1007/s11605-020-04832-y. PMID: 33140318.

Kline BP, et al. Clinical and Genetic Factors Impact Time to Surgical Recurrence After Ileocolectomy for Crohn’s Disease. Ann Surg. 2021 Aug 1;274(2):346-351. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000003660. PMID: 31714311.
Myrelid P, Kalman TD. Old, New, and Out of the Box in IBD Surgery: Proceedings of the European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation 2020 Congress from a Surgical Perspective. Dis Colon Rectum. 2021 Aug 1;64(8):929-931. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000002102. PMID: 33872289

Reinisch W, et al. Long-term infliximab maintenance therapy for ulcerative colitis: the ACT-1 and -2 extension studies. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2012 Feb;18(2):201-11. doi: 10.1002/ibd.21697. PMID: 21484965.


Anti-Reflux & Gastroparesis SurgeryBroeders JA, et al. Systematic review and meta-analysis of laparoscopic Nissen (posterior total) versus Toupet (posterior partial) fundoplication for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Br J Surg. 2010 Sep;97(9):1318-30. doi: 10.1002/bjs.7174. PMID: 20641062.

Galmiche JP, et al. Laparoscopic antireflux surgery vs esomeprazole treatment for chronic GERD: the LOTUS randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2011 May 18;305(19):1969-77. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.626. PMID: 21586712.  

Jobe BA, et al. Preoperative diagnostic workup before antireflux surgery: an evidence and experience-based consensus of the Esophageal Diagnostic Advisory Panel. J Am Coll Surg. 2013 Oct;217(4):586-97. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2013.05.023. PMID: 23973101.

Rodriguez J, et al. Per-oral Pyloromyotomy (POP) for Medically Refractory Gastroparesis: Short Term Results From the First 100 Patients at a High Volume Center. Ann Surg. 2018 Sep;268(3):421-430. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002927. PMID: 30004920.

van der Westhuizen L, et al. The need for fundoplication at the time of laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair. Am Surg. 2013 Jun;79(6):572-7. PMID: 23711265.
Bariatric SurgeryYeung KTD, et al. Does Sleeve Gastrectomy Expose the Distal Esophagus to Severe Reflux?: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Surg. 2020 Feb;271(2):257-265. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000003275. PMID: 30921053.
Benign Foregut Surgery 
Complex Abdominal Wall Reconstruction 
HerniasBelyansky I, et al. A novel approach using the enhanced-view totally extraperitoneal (eTEP) technique for laparoscopic retromuscular hernia repair. Surg Endosc. 2018 Mar;32(3):1525-1532. doi: 10.1007/s00464-017-5840-2. PMID: 28916960.

Daes J, Felix E. Critical View of the Myopectineal Orifice. Ann Surg. 2017 Jul;266(1):e1-e2. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002104. PMID: 27984213

Deerenberg EB, et al. Small bites versus large bites for closure of abdominal midline incisions (STITCH): a double-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2015 Sep 26;386(10000):1254-1260.

Fitzgibbons RJ Jr, et al.; Investigators of the Original Trial. Long-term results of a randomized controlled trial of a nonoperative strategy (watchful waiting) for men with minimally symptomatic inguinal hernias. Ann Surg. 2013 Sep;258(3):508-15. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e3182a19725. PMID: 24022443.

Petro CC, et al. Robotic vs Laparoscopic Ventral Hernia Repair with Intraperitoneal Mesh: 1-Year Exploratory Outcomes of the PROVE-IT Randomized Clinical Trial. J Am Coll Surg. 2022 Jun 1;234(6):1160-1165. doi: 10.1097/XCS.0000000000000171. PMID: 35703814.    

El-Tamer “A schematic model for teaching groin hernia surgery” Surg Rounds 2000. Unable to locate citation.

Antoniou SA, et al European Hernia Society guidelines on prevention and treatment of parastomal hernias. Hernia. 2018 Feb;22(1):183-198.


Gallbladder Cancer Butte JM, et al. Residual disease predicts outcomes after definitive resection for incidental gallbladder cancer. J Am Coll Surg. 2014 Sep;219(3):416-29. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2014.01.069. PMID: 25087941.  

D’Angelica M, et al. Analysis of the extent of resection for adenocarcinoma of the gallbladder. Ann Surg Oncol. 2009 Apr;16(4):806-16. doi: 10.1245/s10434-008-0189-3. PMID: 18985272.  

Ethun CG, Postlewait LM, Le N, Pawlik TM, Buettner S, Poultsides G, Tran T, Idrees K, Isom CA, Fields RC, Jin LX, Weber SM, Salem A, Martin RC, Scoggins C, Shen P, Mogal HD, Schmidt C, Beal E, Hatzaras I, Shenoy R, Merchant N, Cardona K, Maithel SK. A Novel Pathology-Based Preoperative Risk Score to Predict Locoregional Residual and Distant Disease and Survival for Incidental Gallbladder Cancer: A 10-Institution Study from the U.S. Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. Ann Surg Oncol. 2017 May;24(5):1343-1350. doi: 10.1245/s10434-016-5637-x. PMID: 27812827.  

Ethun CG, Postlewait LM, Le N, Pawlik TM, Buettner S, Poultsides G, Tran T, Idrees K, Isom CA, Fields RC, Jin LX, Weber SM, Salem A, Martin RC, Scoggins C, Shen P, Mogal HD, Schmidt C, Beal E, Hatzaras I, Shenoy R, Kooby DA, Maithel SK. Association of Optimal Time Interval to Re-resection for Incidental Gallbladder Cancer With Overall Survival: A Multi-Institution Analysis From the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. JAMA Surg. 2017 Feb 1;152(2):143-149. doi: 10.1001/jamasurg.2016.3642. PMID: 27784058.  

Ethun CG, Postlewait LM, Le N, Pawlik TM, Poultsides G, Tran T, Idrees K, Isom CA, Fields RC, Krasnick BA, Weber SM, Salem A, Martin RCG, Scoggins CR, Shen P, Mogal HD, Schmidt C, Beal E, Hatzaras I, Shenoy R, Cardona K, Maithel SK. Routine port-site excision in incidentally discovered gallbladder cancer is not associated with improved survival: A multi-institution analysis from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium. J Surg Oncol. 2017 Jun;115(7):805-811. doi: 10.1002/jso.24591. PMID: 28230242.  

Gamboa AC, Maithel SK. The Landmark Series: Gallbladder Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Aug;27(8):2846-2858.

Primrose JN, et al. Capecitabine compared with observation in resected biliary tract cancer (BILCAP): a randomised, controlled, multicentre, phase 3 study. Lancet Oncol. 2019 May;20(5):663-673. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(18)30915-X. Epub 2019 Mar 25. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2019 Apr 2;: PMID: 30922733.  
CholangiocarcinomaBrindley PJ, et al. Cholangiocarcinoma. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021 Sep 9;7(1):65. doi: 10.1038/s41572-021-00300-2. PMID: 34504109.  

Cloyd JM, Ejaz A, Pawlik TM. The Landmark Series: Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Aug;27(8):2859-2865.

Maithel SK, Gamblin TC, Kamel I, Corona-Villalobos CP, Thomas M, Pawlik TM. Multidisciplinary approaches to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. Cancer. 2013 Nov 15;119(22):3929-42. doi: 10.1002/cncr.28312. PMID: 23963845.  

Rea DJ, et al. Liver transplantation with neoadjuvant chemoradiation is more effective than resection for hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg. 2005 Sep;242(3):451-8; discussion 458-61. doi: 10.1097/01.sla.0000179678.13285.fa. PMID: 16135931.  

Rocha FG, et al. Hilar cholangiocarcinoma: the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center experience. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci. 2010 Jul;17(4):490-6. doi: 10.1007/s00534-009-0205-4. PMID: 19806295.  

Soares KC, Jarnagin WR. The Landmark Series: Hilar Cholangiocarcinoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Aug;28(8):4158-4170. doi: 10.1245/s10434-021-09871-6. PMID: 33829358; PMCID: PMC9273057.  

Tao R, et al. Ablative Radiotherapy Doses Lead to a Substantial Prolongation of Survival in Patients With Inoperable Intrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma: A Retrospective Dose Response Analysis. J Clin Oncol. 2016 Jan 20;34(3):219-26. doi: 10.1200/JCO.2015.61.3778. Erratum in: J Clin Oncol. 2019 Apr 10;37(11):942. PMID: 26503201.
Benign Liver Tumors 
Hepatocellular CarcinomaCheng AL, et al. Efficacy and safety of sorafenib in patients in the Asia-Pacific region with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma: a phase III randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2009 Jan;10(1):25-34. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(08)70285-7. PMID: 19095497.
Finn RS, et al.; IMbrave150 Investigators. Atezolizumab plus Bevacizumab in Unresectable Hepatocellular Carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 14;382(20):1894-1905. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1915745. PMID: 32402160.
Llovet JM, et al. Hepatocellular carcinoma. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2021 Jan 21;7(1):6. doi: 10.1038/s41572-020-00240-3. PMID: 33479224.
Llovet JM, et al.; SHARP Investigators Study Group. Sorafenib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jul 24;359(4):378-90. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0708857. PMID: 18650514.
Mazzaferro V, et al. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 1996 Mar 14;334(11):693-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199603143341104. PMID: 8594428.
Liver MetastasesGangi A, Howe JR. The Landmark Series: Neuroendocrine Tumor Liver Metastases. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Sep;27(9):3270-3280. doi: 10.1245/s10434-020-08787-x. PMID: 32632880; PMCID: PMC7415723.

Kawaguchi Y, Vauthey JN. The Landmark Series: RCTs Examining Perioperative Chemotherapy and Postoperative Adjuvant Chemotherapy for Resectable Colorectal Liver Metastasis. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Oct;27(11):4263-4270. doi: 10.1245/s10434-020-08809-8. PMID: 32642998.  
Pancreatic AdenocarcinomaDillhoff M, Pawlik TM. Role of Node Dissection in Pancreatic Tumor Resection. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Apr;28(4):2374-2381. See also: ASO Author Reflections: Role of Node Dissection in Pancreatic Tumor Resection.
He J, et al. Landmark Series: Neoadjuvant Treatment in Borderline Resectable Pancreatic Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Mar;28(3):1514-1520.
Rocha FG. Landmark Series: Immunotherapy and Targeted Therapy for Pancreatic Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Mar;28(3):1400-1406. doi: 10.1245/s10434-020-09367-9. PMID: 33386541.
Sachs TE, Tseng JF. Landmark Series in Pancreatic Tumors: Anastomotic Techniques and Route of Reconstruction. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Apr;28(4):2227-2234.
Shah MM, Datta J, Merchant NB, Kooby DA. Landmark Series: Importance of Pancreatic Resection Margins. Ann Surg Oncol. 2022 Mar;29(3):1542-1550. doi: 10.1245/s10434-021-11168-7. PMID: 34985731.
van Hilst J, et al. The Landmark Series: Minimally Invasive Pancreatic Resection. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Mar;28(3):1447-1456. doi: 10.1245/s10434-020-09335-3. PMID: 33341916; PMCID: PMC7892688.
White RR, Murphy JD, Martin RCG. The Landmark Series: Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer and Ablative Therapy Options. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Aug;28(8):4173-4180.
Non-PDAC Masses
of the Pancreas
Tanaka M, et al. Revisions of international consensus Fukuoka guidelines for the management of IPMN of the pancreas. Pancreatology. 2017 Sep-Oct;17(5):738-753. doi: 10.1016/j.pan.2017.07.007. PMID: 28735806.
Chronic Pancreatitis
Bile Duct Injury
Choledochal Cysts
Gastric CancerAl-Batran SE, et al.; FLOT4-AIO Investigators. Perioperative chemotherapy with fluorouracil plus leucovorin, oxaliplatin, and docetaxel versus fluorouracil or capecitabine plus cisplatin and epirubicin for locally advanced, resectable gastric or gastro-oesophageal junction adenocarcinoma (FLOT4): a randomised, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet. 2019 May 11;393(10184):1948-1957. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(18)32557-1. PMID: 30982686.

Cunningham D, et al., MAGIC Trial Participants. Perioperative chemotherapy versus surgery alone for resectable gastroesophageal cancer. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 6;355(1):11-20. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa055531. PMID: 16822992.

Dineen SP, Pimiento JM. The Landmark Series: Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) for Treatment of Gastric Cancer Metastatic to Peritoneum. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Aug;28(8):4130-4137.

Ng SP, Leong T. Role of Radiation Therapy in Gastric Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Aug;28(8):4151-4157.
GISTKeung EZ, et al. The Landmark Series: Systemic Therapy for Resectable Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Oct;27(10):3659-3671.


Anal FistulaSugrue J, et al. Sphincter-Sparing Anal Fistula Repair: Are We Getting Better? Dis Colon Rectum. 2017 Oct;60(10): 1071-1077.  

Gaertner WB, et al. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Anorectal Abscess, Fistula-in-Ano, and Rectovaginal Fistula. Dis Colon Rectum. 2022 Aug 1;65(8):964-985. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000002473. PMID: 35732009.  

Sirany AM, et al. The ligation of the intersphincteric fistula tract procedure for anal fistula: a mixed bag of results. Dis Colon Rectum. 2015 Jun;58(6):604-12.
Diverticular DiseaseAl-Khamis A, et al. Sigmoid Colectomy for Acute Diverticulitis in Immunosuppressed vs Immunocompetent Patients: Outcomes From the ACS-NSQIP Database. Dis Colon Rectum. 2016 Feb;59(2):101-9. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000513. PMID: 26734967.  

Aquina CT, et al. Population-based study of outcomes following an initial acute diverticular abscess. Br J Surg. 2019 Mar;106(4):467-476. doi: 10.1002/bjs.10982. PMID: 30335195.  

Azhar N, et al. Laparoscopic Lavage vs Primary Resection for Acute Perforated Diverticulitis: Long-term Outcomes From the Scandinavian Diverticulitis (SCANDIV) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Surg. 2021 Feb 1;156(2):121-127. Erratum in: JAMA Surg. 2021 Sep 1;156(9):894. PMID: 33355658; PMCID: PMC7758831.  

Bolkenstein HE, et al.; Dutch Diverticular Disease (3D) Collaborative Study Group. Long-term Outcome of Surgery Versus Conservative Management for Recurrent and Ongoing Complaints After an Episode of Diverticulitis: 5-year Follow-up Results of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial (DIRECT-Trial). Ann Surg. 2019 Apr;269(4):612-620. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000003033. PMID: 30247329.  

Bridoux V, et al. Hartmann’s Procedure or Primary Anastomosis for Generalized Peritonitis due to Perforated Diverticulitis: A Prospective Multicenter Randomized Trial (DIVERTI). J Am Coll Surg. 2017 Dec;225(6):798-805. doi: 10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2017.09.004. PMID: 28943323.  

Dichman ML, et al. Antibiotics for uncomplicated diverticulitis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2022 Jun 22;6(6):CD009092. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD009092.pub3. PMID: 35731704.  

El-Sayed C, et al. Risk of Recurrent Disease and Surgery Following an Admission for Acute Diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Mar;61(3):382-389. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000939. PMID: 29420430.  

Francis NK, et al. EAES and SAGES 2018 consensus conference on acute diverticulitis management: evidence-based recommendations for clinical practice. Surg Endosc. 2019 Sep;33(9):2726-2741. doi: 10.1007/s00464-019-06882-z. PMID: 31250244.  

Hall J, et al. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Left-Sided Colonic Diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2020 Jun;63(6):728-747. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000001679. PMID: 32384404.  

Hall JF, et al. Long-term follow-up after an initial episode of diverticulitis: what are the predictors of recurrence? Dis Colon Rectum. 2011 Mar;54(3):283-8. PMID: 21304297.  

Kohl A, et al. Two-year results of the randomized clinical trial DILALA comparing laparoscopic lavage with resection as treatment for perforated diverticulitis. Br J Surg. 2018 Aug;105(9):1128-1134. doi: 10.1002/bjs.10839. PMID: 29663316.  

Lambrichts DPV, et al. Hartmann’s procedure versus sigmoidectomy with primary anastomosis for perforated diverticulitis with purulent or faecal peritonitis (LADIES): a multicentre, parallel-group, randomised, open-label, superiority trial. Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Aug;4(8):599-610. doi: 10.1016/S2468-1253(19)30174-8. PMID: 31178342.  

Liu PH, et al. Adherence to a Healthy Lifestyle is Associated With a Lower Risk of Diverticulitis among Men. Am J Gastroenterol. 2017 Dec;112(12):1868-1876. doi: 10.1038/ajg.2017.398. PMID: 29112202.
Murad-Regadas SM, et al. How much of the internal sphincter may be divided during lateral sphincterotomy for chronic anal fissure in women? Morphologic and functional evaluation after sphincterotomy. Dis Colon Rectum. 2013 May;56(5):645-51.
Stewart DB Sr, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Anal Fissures. Dis Colon Rectum. 2017 Jan;60(1):7-14. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000000735. PMID: 27926552.
Thornton MJ, et al. Prospective manometric assessment of botulinum toxin and its correlation with healing of chronic anal fissure. Dis Colon Rectum. 2005 Jul;48(7):1424-31.
HemorrhoidsDavis BR, et al. ASCRS Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Mar;61(3):284-292.
Nelson DW, et al. Prophylactic antibiotics for hemorrhoidectomy: are they really needed? Dis Colon Rectum. 2014 Mar;57(3):365-9.
Nienhuijs S, de Hingh I. Conventional versus LigaSure hemorrhoidectomy for patients with symptomatic hemorrhoids. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009 Jan 21;2009(1):CD006761.
Rectal ProlapseBordeianou L, et al. Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Rectal Prolapse. Dis Colon Rectum. 2017 Nov;60(11):1121-1131.
Colon CancerAllaix ME, Rebecchi F, Fichera A. The Landmark Series: Minimally Invasive (Laparoscopic and Robotic) Colorectal Cancer Surgery. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Oct;27(10):3704-3715.
Alonso S, Saltz L. The Landmark Series: Chemotherapy for Non-Metastatic Colon Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Feb;28(2):995-1001.
Vogel JD, et al. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Colon Cancer. Dis Colon Rectum. 2022 Feb 1;65(2):148-177. doi: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000002323. PMID: 34775402.
Rectal CancerBahadoer RR, et al. Short-course radiotherapy followed by chemotherapy before total mesorectal excision (TME) versus preoperative chemoradiotherapy, TME, and optional adjuvant chemotherapy in locally advanced rectal cancer (RAPIDO): a randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2021 Jan;22(1):29-42. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(20)30555-6. Erratum in: Lancet Oncol. 2021 Feb;22(2):e42. PMID: 33301740.
Conroy T, et al. Total neoadjuvant therapy with mFOLFIRINOX versus preoperative chemoradiation in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer: final results of PRODIGE 23 phase III trial, a UNICANCER GI trial. J Clin Oncol 2020;38(15 Suppl.):4007.

Peacock O, Chang GJ. The Landmark Series: Management of Lateral Lymph Nodes in Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Aug;27(8):2723-2731.
Anal CancerPalefsky JM, et al.; ANCHOR Investigators Group. Treatment of Anal High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions to Prevent Anal Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2022 Jun 16;386(24): 2273-2282. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2201048. PMID: 35704479.


Appendicitis Alvarado A. A practical score for the early diagnosis of acute appendicitis. Ann Emerg Med. 1986 May;15(5):557-64. doi: 10.1016/s0196-0644(86)80993-3. PMID: 3963537.  

CODA Collaborative, Flum DR, Davidson GH, et al. A Randomized Trial Comparing Antibiotics with Appendectomy for Appendicitis. N Engl J Med. 2020 Nov 12;383(20):1907-1919. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2014320. PMID: 33017106.  

St Peter SD, et al. Irrigation versus suction alone during laparoscopic appendectomy for perforated appendicitis: a prospective randomized trial. Ann Surg. 2012 Oct;256(4):581-5. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0b013e31826a91e5. PMID: 22964730.

Salminen P, Tuominen R, Paajanen H, et al. Five-Year Follow-up of Antibiotic Therapy for Uncomplicated Acute Appendicitis in the APPAC Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2018 Sep 25;320(12):1259-1265. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.13201. PMID: 30264120; PMCID: PMC6233612.   

Sawyer RG, et al.; STOP-IT Trial Investigators. Trial of short-course antimicrobial therapy for intraabdominal infection. N Engl J Med. 2015 May 21;372(21):1996-2005. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1411162. Erratum in: N Engl J Med. 2018 Jan 25. PMID: 25992746; PMCID: PMC4469182.
Peptic Ulcer DiseaseBurch JM, Cox CL, Feliciano DV, Richardson RJ, Martin RR. Management of the difficult duodenal stump. Am J Surg. 1991 Dec;162(6):522-6. doi: 10.1016/0002-9610(91)90102-j. PMID: 1670218.
CholelithiasisHunter JG. Avoidance of bile duct injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Am J Surg. 1991 Jul;162(1):71-6. doi: 10.1016/0002-9610(91)90207-t. PMID: 1829588.

Strasberg SM. Avoidance of biliary injury during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Surg. 2002;9(5):543-7. doi: 10.1007/s005340200071. PMID: 12541037.
Intra-abdominal InfectionGuidry CA, Sawyer RG. Short-Course Antimicrobial Therapy for Intraabdominal Infection. N Engl J Med. 2015 Oct 15;373(16):1578. doi: 10.1056/NEJMc1508694. PMID: 26466002; PMCID: PMC4699292.
Saunte DML, Jemec GBE. Hidradenitis Suppurativa: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment. JAMA. 2017 Nov 28;318(20):2019-2032. doi: 10.1001/jama.2017.16691. PMID: 29183082.
PancreatitisBergman S, Melvin WS. Operative and nonoperative management of pancreatic pseudocysts. Surg Clin North Am. 2007 Dec;87(6):1447-60, ix. doi: 10.1016/j.suc.2007.09.003. PMID: 18053841.

Besselink MG, van Santvoort HC, Nieuwenhuijs VB, et al.; Dutch Acute Pancreatitis Study Group. Minimally invasive ‘step-up approach’ versus maximal necrosectomy in patients with acute necrotising pancreatitis (PANTER trial): design and rationale of a randomised controlled multicenter trial [ISRCTN13975868]. BMC Surg. 2006 Apr 11;6:6. doi: 10.1186/1471-2482-6-6. PMID: 16606471; PMCID: PMC1508161.

Boerma D, et al. Wait-and-see policy or laparoscopic cholecystectomy after endoscopic sphincterotomy for bile-duct stones: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2002 Sep 7;360(9335):761-5. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(02)09896-3. PMID: 12241833.
Boxhoorn L, et al. Acute pancreatitis. Lancet. 2020 Sep 5;396(10252):726-734. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31310-6. Erratum in: Lancet. 2021 Nov 6;398(10312):1686. PMID: 32891214.
Branum G, Galloway J, Hirchowitz W, Fendley M, Hunter J. Pancreatic necrosis: results of necrosectomy, packing, and ultimate closure over drains. Ann Surg. 1998 Jun;227(6):870-7. doi: 10.1097/00000658-199806000-00010. PMID: 9637550; PMCID: PMC1191394.
Kao LS, McCauley JS. Evidence-Based Management of Gallstone Pancreatitis. Adv Surg. 2020 Sep;54:173-189. doi: 10.1016/j.yasu.2020.04.005. PMID: 32713429.

Van Buren G 2nd, Vollmer CM Jr. The Landmark Series: Mitigation of the Postoperative Pancreatic Fistula. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Feb;28(2):1052-1059.


Peripheral Arterial DiseaseBonaca MP, et al. Rivaroxaban in Peripheral Artery Disease after Revascularization. N Engl J Med. 2020 May 21;382(21):1994-2004. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa2000052. PMID: 32222135.
Caradu C, et al. Systematic review and updated meta-analysis of the use of drug-coated balloon angioplasty versus plain old balloon angioplasty for femoropopliteal arterial disease. J Vasc Surg. 2019 Sep;70(3):981-995.e10.
Kaplovitch E, et al. Rivaroxaban and Aspirin in Patients With Symptomatic Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: A Subanalysis of the COMPASS Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Cardiol. 2021 Jan 1;6(1):21-29. doi: 10.1001/jamacardio.2020.4390. Erratum in: JAMA Cardiol. 2021 Feb 1;6(2):246. PMID: 32997098; PMCID: PMC7527938.
Murphy TP, et al. The Claudication: Exercise Vs. Endoluminal Revascularization (CLEVER) study: rationale and methods. J Vasc Surg. 2008 Jun;47(6):1356-63. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2007.12.048. PMID: 18440181; PMCID: PMC2519609.
Writing Committee Members, Gerhard-Herman MD, Gornik HL, et al. 2016 AHA/ACC Guideline on the Management of Patients with Lower Extremity Peripheral Artery Disease: Executive Summary. Vasc Med. 2017 Jun;22(3):NP1-NP43. doi: 10.1177/1358863X17701592. PMID: 28494710.
Zhan LX, et al. The Society for Vascular Surgery lower extremity threatened limb classification system based on Wound, Ischemia, and foot Infection (WIfI) correlates with risk of major amputation and time to wound healing. J Vasc Surg. 2015 Apr;61(4):939-44.
Aortic DiseaseLederle FA, et al.; OVER Veterans Affairs Cooperative Study Group. Long-term comparison of endovascular and open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 22;367(21):1988-97. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1207481. PMID: 23171095.
Mwipatayi BP, et al.; Covered Versus Balloon Expandable Stent Trial (COBEST) Co-investigators. A comparison of covered vs bare expandable stents for the treatment of aortoiliac occlusive disease. J Vasc Surg. 2011 Dec;54(6):1561-70. doi: 10.1016/j.jvs.2011.06.097. PMID: 21906903.
Patel R, et al. Endovascular versus open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm in 15-years’ follow-up of the UK endovascular aneurysm repair trial 1 (EVAR trial 1): a randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2016 Nov 12;388(10058):2366-2374. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)31135-7. PMID: 27743617.
United Kingdom EVAR Trial Investigators, et al. Endovascular versus open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm. N Engl J Med. 2010 May 20;362(20):1863-71. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa0909305. Epub 2010 Apr 11. PMID: 20382983.
Carotid DiseaseNorth American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial Collaborators, Barnett HJM, Taylor DW, Haynes RB, et al. Beneficial effect of carotid endarterectomy in symptomatic patients with high-grade carotid stenosis. N Engl J Med. 1991 Aug 15;325(7):445-53. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199108153250701. PMID: 1852179.  

Walker MD, Marler JR, Goldstein M, et al.; Executive Committee for the Asymptomatic Carotid Atherosclerosis Study. Endarterectomy for asymptomatic carotid artery stenosis. JAMA. 1995 May 10;273(18):1421-8. PMID: 7723155.
Venous DiseasePalareti G, Cosmi B, Legnani C, et al.; PROLONG Investigators. D-dimer testing to determine the duration of anticoagulation therapy. N Engl J Med. 2006 Oct 26;355(17):1780-9. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa054444. PMID: 17065639.

Vedantham S, et al.; ATTRACT Trial Investigators. Pharmacomechanical Catheter-Directed Thrombolysis for Deep-Vein Thrombosis. N Engl J Med. 2017 Dec 7;377(23):2240-2252. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1615066. PMID: 29211671; PMCID: PMC5763501.
Mesenteric Ischemia 


Abdominal InjuriesManley NR, et al. Analysis of over 2 decades of colon injuries identifies optimal method of diversion: Does an end justify the means? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2019 Feb;86(2):214-219. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000002135. PMID: 30605141.
Traumatic Brain InjuriesLey EJ, Leonard SD, Barmparas G, et al. Beta blockers in critically ill patients with traumatic brain injury: Results from a multicenter, prospective, observational American Association for the Surgery of Trauma study. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Feb;84(2):234-244. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001747. PMID: 29251711.
Thoracic InjuriesFigueroa JF, et al. The 35-mm rule to guide pneumothorax management: Increases appropriate observation and decreases unnecessary chest tubes. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2022 Jun 1;92(6):951-957. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000003573. PMID: 35125448.  

Seamon MJ, et al. An evidence-based approach to patient selection for emergency department thoracotomy: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jul;79(1):159-73. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000648. PMID: 26091330.  

Thorson CM, et al. Does hemopericardium after chest trauma mandate sternotomy? J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2012 Jun;72(6):1518-24. doi: 10.1097/TA.0b013e318254306e. PMID: 22695415.
Wounds and InjuriesCRASH-2 trial collaborators, Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, et al. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 Jul 3;376(9734):23-32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60835-5. Epub 2010 Jun 14. PMID: 20554319.  

Cannon JW, Khan MA, Raja AS, et al. Damage control resuscitation in patients with severe traumatic hemorrhage: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Mar;82(3):605-617. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001333. PMID: 28225743.


 Overview: Jeschke MG, et al. Burn injury. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2020
Feb 13;6(1):11.

Critical Care: Cartotto R, et al . Burn Shock and Resuscitation: Review
and State of the Science.
J Burn Care Res. 2022 Feb 26
Pain: Romanewski KS, et al AmeriAan Burn Association
Guidelines on the Management of Acute Pain in the Adult
Burn Patient: A Review of the Literature, a Compilation of
Expert Opinion and Next Steps.
J Burn Care Res. 2020
Nov 30;41(6):1152-1164.
 Skin Grafting: De Ayala, R et al Outcomes of using Cultured Epidermal
Autograft (CEA) and autologous spray cell suspension
(ASCS) in addition to split thickness skin graft (STSG) on
the same burn wound:
Grady Hospital experience,
Burns Open, Volume 6, Issue 1, 2022, Pages 32-36



Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11):e1063-e1143. PMID: 34605781.

Khanna A, English SW, Wang XS,et al.; ATHOS-3 Investigators. Angiotensin II for the Treatment of Vasodilatory Shock. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 3;377(5):419-430. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1704154. PMID: 28528561.

Sprung CL, Annane D, Keh D, et al.; CORTICUS Study Group. Hydrocortisone therapy for patients with septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2008 Jan 10;358(2):111-24. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa071366. PMID: 18184957.  
VentilationAcute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (ARDSnet), Brower RG, Matthay MA, Morris A, et al. Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med. 2000 May 4;342(18):1301-8. doi: 10.1056/NEJM200005043421801. PMID: 10793162.  

Meyer NJ, Gattinoni L, Calfee CS. Acute respiratory distress syndrome. Lancet. 2021 Aug 14;398(10300):622-637. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00439-6. PMID: 34217425; PMCID: PMC8248927.
ResuscitationBrown RM, et al. Balanced Crystalloids versus Saline in Sepsis. A Secondary Analysis of the SMART Clinical Trial. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 Dec 15;200(12):1487-1495. See also: Surgical Focus: The use of balanced crystalloids versus saline in sepsis  

Chabot E, Nirula R. Open abdomen critical care management principles: resuscitation, fluid balance, nutrition, and ventilator management. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2017 Sep 3;2(1): e000063.  

Finfer S, et al.; SAFE Study Investigators. A comparison of albumin and saline for fluid resuscitation in the intensive care unit. N Engl J Med. 2004 May 27;350(22):2247-56. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa040232. PMID: 15163774.

Greer DM, Shemie SD, Lewis A, et al. Determination of Brain Death/Death by Neurologic Criteria: The World Brain Death Project. JAMA. 2020 Sep 15;324(11):1078-1097. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.11586. PMID: 32761206.

Hébert PC, Wells G, Blajchman MA, et al. A multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial of transfusion requirements in critical care (TRICC). Transfusion Requirements in Critical Care Investigators, Canadian Critical Care Trials Group. N Engl J Med. 1999 Feb 11;340(6):409-17. doi: 10.1056/NEJM199902113400601. Erratum in: N Engl J Med 1999 Apr 1;340(13):1056. PMID: 9971864.  

Krag M, Marker S, Perner A, et al.; SUP-ICU trial group. Pantoprazole in Patients at Risk for Gastrointestinal Bleeding in the ICU. N Engl J Med. 2018 Dec 6;379(23):2199-2208. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa1714919. PMID: 30354950.  

NICE-SUGAR Study Investigators, Finfer S, Chittock DR, Su SY, et al. Intensive versus conventional glucose control in critically ill patients. N Engl J Med. 2009 Mar 26;360(13): 1283-97. PMID: 19318384.  


SarcomaCallegaro D, Roland CL, Raut CP. Relevant Trials Update in Sarcomas and Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: What Surgeons Should Know. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):341-360. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.002. PMID: 35715138.  

Crago AM, Cardona K, Koseła-Paterczyk H, Rutkowski P. Management of Myxofibrosarcoma and Undifferentiated Pleomorphic Sarcoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):419-430. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.006. PMID: 35715142.  

Devaud N, et al. Leiomyosarcoma: Current Clinical Management and Future Horizons. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):527-546. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.011. PMID: 35715148.  

Hindi N, Haas RL. Management of Synovial Sarcoma and Myxoid Liposarcoma. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):547-558. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.012. PMID: 35715149.  

Kazazian K, et al. Toward Better Understanding and Management of Solitary Fibrous Tumor. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):459-483. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.009. PMID: 35715145.  

Messina V, et al. Management of Skin Sarcomas. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):511-525. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.010. PMID: 35715147.  

Roland CL, et al. The Landmark Series: Multimodality Treatment of Extremity Sarcoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Oct;27(10):3672-3682.  

Schaefer IM, Gronchi A. WHO Pathology: Highlights of the 2020 Sarcoma Update. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):321-340. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.001. PMID: 35715137; PMCID: PMC9216237.  

Sharma AK, Kim TS, Bauer S, Sicklick JK. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor: New Insights for a Multimodal Approach. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):431-446. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.007. PMID: 35715143.  

Siew CCH, et al. Retroperitoneal and Mesenteric Liposarcomas. Surg Oncol Clin N Am. 2022 Jul;31(3):399-417. doi: 10.1016/j.soc.2022.03.005. PMID: 35715141.
Gastric Cancers
Small Bowel CancersTran CG, et al. The Landmark Series: Management of Small Bowel Neuroendocrine Tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 May;28(5):2741-2751.
Desmoid & MesotheliomaFiore M, et al. The Landmark Series: Desmoid. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Mar;28(3): 1682-1689.
Kantor T, Wakeam E. Landmark Trials in the Surgical Management of Mesothelioma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Apr; 28(4):2037-2047.


Anorectal Malformations Cairo SB, et al.; Delivery of Surgical Care Committee of the AAP Section on Surgery. Challenges in transition of care for patients with anorectal malformations: a systematic review and recommendations for comprehensive care. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Mar;61(3):390-399. Erratum in: Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 May;61(5):e337.
Intestinal Failure and MalrotationDuggan CP, Jaksic T. Pediatric Intestinal Failure. N Engl J Med. 2017 Aug 17;377(7):666-675.
Biliary Atresia 


Lung CancerEby ME, Seder CW. The Landmark Series: Multimodality Therapy for Stage 3A Non-small Cell Lung Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Aug;27(8):3030-3036.
Lung Nodule 
Lung Mastectomy   
Benign Lung  Rationale and design of The National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT): a prospective randomized trial of lung volume reduction surgery. The National Emphysema Treatment Trial Research Group. Chest. 1999 Dec;116(6):1750-61. doi: 10.1378/chest.116.6.1750. PMID: 10593802.  

Fishman A, Martinez F, et al.; National Emphysema Treatment Trial (NETT) Research Group. A randomized trial comparing lung-volume-reduction surgery with medical therapy for severe emphysema. N Engl J Med. 2003 May 22;348(21):2059-73. doi: 10.1056/NEJMoa030287. PMID: 12759479.
Mediastinal Masses 
Esophageal CancerDemarest CT, Chang AC. The Landmark Series: Multimodal Therapy for Esophageal Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Jun;28(6):3375-3382.


Melanoma &
Skin Cancers
Angeles CV, Wong SL, Karakousis G. The Landmark Series: Randomized Trials Examining Surgical Margins for Cutaneous Melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jan;27(1):3-12.
Beasley GM, et al. The Landmark Series: Regional Therapy of Recurrent Cutaneous Melanoma. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jan;27(1):35-42.
Bello DM, Faries MB. The Landmark Series: MSLT-1, MSLT-2 and DeCOG (Management of Lymph Nodes). Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jan;27(1):15-21.
Egger ME, et al. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jan;27(1):28-34.
Spillane AJ, et al. The Landmark Series: Neoadjuvant Systemic Therapy (NAST) for Stage 3 Melanoma Patients – A Potential Paradigm Shift in Management. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jul; 27(7):2188-2200.
Other Skin CancerLee AY, Berman RS. The Landmark Series: Non-melanoma Skin Cancers. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jan;27(1):22-27.
BreastBoughey JC, et al. Sentinel lymph node surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with node-positive breast cancer: the ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance) clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Oct 9;310(14):1455-61.    

Elmore LC, et al. The Landmark Series: Mastectomy Trials (Skin-Sparing and Nipple-Sparing and Reconstruction Landmark Trials). Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Jan;28(1):273-280.

Fisher CS, et al. The Landmark Series: Axillary Management in Breast Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Mar;27(3):724-729.

Giuliano AE, Hunt KK, Ballman KV, et al. Axillary dissection vs no axillary dissection in women with invasive breast cancer and sentinel node metastasis: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2011 Feb 9;305(6):569-75. doi: 10.1001/jama.2011.90. PMID: 21304082.

Giuliano AE, et al. Effect of Axillary Dissection vs No Axillary Dissection on 10-Year Overall Survival Among Women With Invasive Breast Cancer and Sentinel Node Metastasis: The ACOSOG Z0011 (Alliance) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA. 2017 Sep 12;318(10):918-926.

Krag DN, Anderson SJ, Julian TB, et al. Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial. Lancet Oncol. 2010 Oct;11(10):927-33. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(10)70207-2. PMID: 20863759.

Leon-Ferre RA, et al. The Landmark Series: Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Triple-Negative and HER2-Positive Breast Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Apr;28(4):2111-2119.

Valente SA, Shah C. The Landmark Series: Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Breast Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jul;27(7): 2203-2211.  

Weiss A, et al. The Landmark Series: Neoadjuvant Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer. Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Sep;27(9): 3393-3401.

Margenthaler JA, et al. The Landmark Series: Breast Conservation Trials (including oncoplastic breast surgery). Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Apr;28(4):2120-2127.  

Sparano JA, et al. Adjuvant Chemotherapy Guided by a 21-Gene Expression Assay in Breast Cancer. N Engl J Med. 2018 Jul 12;379(2):111-121.  

Yan M, et al. Axillary Management in Breast Cancer Patients: A Comprehensive Review of the Key Trials. Clin Breast Cancer. 2018 Dec;18(6):e1251-e1259.  
ThyroidGunn AH, et al. Patient-Reported Outcomes Following Total Thyroidectomy for Graves’ Disease. Thyroid. 2022 Jan;32(1):54-64. doi: 10.1089/thy.2021.0285. PMID: 34663089; PMCID: PMC8917896.  

Haugen BR, et al. The American Thyroid Association Guidelines Task Force on Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer. Thyroid. 2016 Jan;26(1):1-133. See also: 2015 ATA Management Guidelines for Adult Patients with Thyroid Nodules and Differentiated Thyroid Cancer: What is new and what has changed?  

Matsuura D, et al. Surgical Management of Low-/Intermediate-Risk Node Negative Thyroid Cancer: A Single-Institution Study Using Propensity Matching Analysis to Compare Thyroid Lobectomy and Total Thyroidectomy. Thyroid. 2022 Jan;32(1):28-36. doi: 10.1089/thy.2021.0356. PMID: 34861772; PMCID: PMC8792497.  

Patel KN, et al. Executive Summary of the AAES Guidelines for the Definitive Surgical Management of Thyroid Disease in Adults. Ann Surg. 2020 Mar;271(3):399-410.  

Smith TJ, Hegedüs L. Graves’ Disease. N Engl J Med. 2016 Oct 20;375(16):1552-1565. doi: 10.1056/NEJMra1510030. PMID: 27797318.
ParathyroidPatel A, et al. Parathyroidectomy for Tertiary Hyperparathyroidism: A Multi-Institutional Analysis of Outcomes. J Surg Res. 2021 Feb;258:430-434. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2020.08.079. PMID: 33046234.
AdrenalBirsen O, et al. A new risk stratification algorithm for the management of patients with adrenal incidentalomas. Surgery. 2014 Oct;156(4):959-65.
Lenders JW, et al.; Endocrine Society. Pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma: an endocrine society clinical practice guideline. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jun;99(6):1915-42. doi: 10.1210/jc.2014-1498. PMID: 24893135.
Mpaili E, et al. Laparoscopic Versus Open Adrenalectomy for Localized/Locally Advanced Primary Adrenocortical Carcinoma (ENSAT I-III) in Adults: Is Margin-Free Resection the Key Surgical Factor that Dictates Outcome? A Review of the Literature. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2018 Apr;28(4):408-414.
Smith CD, et al. Laparoscopic adrenalectomy: new gold standard. World J Surg. 1999 Apr;23(4):389-96.
Sturgeon C, et al. Risk assessment in 457 adrenal cortical carcinomas: how much does tumor size predict the likelihood of malignancy? J Am Coll Surg. 2006 Mar;202(3):423-30.
Zeiger MA, et al. AACE/AAES medical guidelines for the management of adrenal incidentalomas. Endocr Pract. 2009 Jul-Aug;15 Suppl 1:1-20. doi: 10.4158/EP.15.S1.1. PMID: 19632967.
Zhu CY, et al. Comparison of Preoperative Alpha-blockade for Resection of Paraganglioma and Pheochromocytoma. Endocr Pract. 2022 Jul 7:S1530-891X(22)00548-1. doi: 10.1016/j.eprac.2022.06.013. PMID: 35809774.
Neuroendocrine Pancreatic TumorsCloyd JM, Poultsides GA. The Landmark Series: Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors. Ann Surg Oncol. 2021 Feb;28(2):1039-1049. doi: 10.1245/s10434-020-09133-x. PMID: 32948965.

Ramonell KM, Saunders ND, Sarmiento J, Bercu Z, Martin L, Weber CJ, Sharma J, Patel SG. Avoiding Pitfalls in Insulinomas by Preoperative Localization with a Dual Imaging Approach. Am Surg. 2019 Jul 1;85(7):742-746. PMID: 31405420.  

Sada A, et al. Comparison Between Sporadic and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Type 1-Associated Insulinoma. J Am Coll Surg. 2022 Jun 24. doi: 10.1097/XCS.0000000000000307. PMID: 35752874.  


KidneyLentine KL, et al. OPTN/SRTR 2020 Annual Data Report: Kidney. Am J Transplant. 2022 Mar;22 Suppl 2:21-136.  

Vincenti F, Charpentier B, Vanrenterghem Y, et al. A phase III study of belatacept-based immunosuppression regimens versus cyclosporine in renal transplant recipients (BENEFIT study). Am J Transplant. 2010 Mar;10(3):535-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-6143.2009.03005.x. PMID: 20415897.
LiverMazzaferro V, Regalia E, Doci R, et al. Liver transplantation for the treatment of small hepatocellular carcinomas in patients with cirrhosis. N Engl J Med. 1996 Mar 14;334(11):693-9. PMID: 8594428.

See also: ASO Landmark Series

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