Results: Thirty patients experienced a BC: 13 BLs (3.3 %) and 17 BSs (4.3 %). A thin bile duct (<5 mm), measured during surgery, was the only predisposing factor for developing a BL or a BS. The management of the BLs consisted of surveillance in six patients (46 %), percutaneous drainage of bilioma in four patients (31 %), and reintervention in three patients (23 %). No patient with a BS had surgery as the frontline treatment: the initial management consisted of an endoscopic procedure, a percutaneous procedure, or medical treatment. Four patients (23.5 %) underwent surgical treatment after failure of nonsurgical procedures.
Conclusions: The only identified predictive factor of BC, either a BS or a BL, was a thin bile duct. Although the noninvasive technique was the treatment of choice initially, reintervention was required in almost 25 % of the cases.
Results: Of 17,500 patients admitted to the study sites with MI, 23 (0.13%) had IC. Study patients had a high in-hospital mortality of 39%. An Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score greater than 15 was a significant predictor of mortality in these patients (P<.04). Compared with the IC-controls, study patients had a significantly lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) (76.0 +/- 17.1 mm Hg vs 98.3 +/- 18.6 mm Hg, P<.0001) and a significantly higher rate of hypotension (57% vs 9%, odds ratio [OR] = 12.6, confidence interval [CI]: 3.10-49.7, P<.001). The 2 groups, however, had a similar mean number of risk factors for thromboembolism per patient. Study patients had more severe illness than IC-controls, as demonstrated by mean APACHE II scores (19.0 +/- 5.5 vs 10.4 +/- 4.8, P<.0001). Study patients had a significantly higher incidence of complications, including respiratory failure (57% vs 13%, P=.001), altered mental status (48% vs 13%, P<.01), and renal insufficiency or failure (61% vs 28%, P<.04). Study patients had a significantly lower minimum hematocrit. Study patients had a significantly higher rate of prolonged hospitalization (>30 days) or in-hospital death (74% vs 19%, OR = 12.3, CI: 3.47-43.5, P<.0001). Compared with MI-control patients, study patients had a significantly lower MAP, significantly higher rate of hypotension, much higher mean APACHE II score, much higher incidence of complications, and significantly worse hospital outcome.
Crittenden JP, Dattilo JB. Sphincter of Oddi Dysfunction. 2021 Feb 23. In: StatPearls [Internet]. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; 2021 Jan–.
The patient’s presentation, in combination with the results of their examination, should be used to stratify them to into three classes of sphincter of Oddi dysfunction. Specific diagnostic criteria for SOD include:
Transaminitis (greater 2 times the upper limit of normal on 2 or more occasions)
Common bile duct dilation (greater than 10 mm on US; greater than 12 mm on ERCP)
Utilizing these criteria, patients are classified as follows:
Type I SOD: all three Type II SOD: biliary pain and one of the other two criteria. Type III SOD: biliary pain only 
The results of this classification will impact the subsequent treatment plan.
Results: There were no differences between drain and no-drain cohorts in demographics, comorbidities, pathology, pancreatic duct size, pancreas texture, baseline quality of life, or operative technique. PD without intraperitoneal drainage was associated with an increase in the number of complications per patient [1 (0-2) vs 2 (1-4), P = 0.029]; an increase in the number of patients who had at least 1 ≥grade 2 complication [35 (52%) vs 47 (68%), P = 0.047]; and a higher average complication severity [2 (0-2) vs 2 (1-3), P = 0.027]. PD without intraperitoneal drainage was associated with a higher incidence of gastroparesis, intra-abdominal fluid collection, intra-abdominal abscess (10% vs 25%, P = 0.027), severe (≥grade 2) diarrhea, need for a postoperative percutaneous drain, and a prolonged length of stay. The Data Safety Monitoring Board stopped the study early because of an increase in mortality from 3% to 12% in the patients undergoing PD without intraperitoneal drainage.
Conclusions: This study provides level 1 data, suggesting that elimination of intraperitoneal drainage in all cases of PD increases the frequency and severity of complications.
Abstract: Since the mid 1980s, the prevalence of liver abscess caused by hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strain has increased in Asia, particularly in Taiwan and Korea. This strain is mostly K1 or K2 serotype, and has hypercapsular and hypermucoid phenotypes. Most infections are community acquired, and patients rarely have a hepatobiliary disease prior to infection. Clinical manifestations are characterized by fever and high C-reactive protein, and metastatic infections, such as septic emboli in the lung and endophthalmitis and meningitis are frequently observed. Antibiotic resistance is rare. Antibiotic treatment and abscess drainage are needed, and early diagnosis and treatment of endophthalmitis is also important.
Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasms of the pancreas are rare pancreatic tumors with low grade malignant potential, typically affecting young females.
Small SPNs (< 3cm in diameter) usually appear as completely solid tumors with sharp margins and gradually enhancing, well encapsulated masses in the pancreas and may demonstrate varying amounts of hemorrhage.
Large lesions have mixed solid – cystic components showing early weak enhancement with gradual increase in enhancement in the hepatic venous phase.
Atypical features including extracapsular, as well as parenchymal invasion, simulation of islet cell tumors, calcifications, ductal obstruction, and metastasis are suspicious for malignant degradation.
The tumor is considered unresectable in the event that it invades or encases the aorta, encases >180 degree of the SMA regardless of tumor location in the pancreas, abuts the celiac artery (when the tumor is located in the pancreatic head) or encases >180 degree of the celiac artery (when the tumor is located in the body/tail of the pancreas).
Results: A total of 72 patients were included in the study, 43 and 29 of whom underwent IPOM and eTEP-RM repair, respectively. Patient demographics showed no differences in terms of gender, age, smoking and comorbidity. The median age was 57 years and body mass index 30.5 kg/m2. The rate of patients with incisional hernia was higher in the IPOM group (39.5% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.154). There was no difference in horizontal and vertical hernia size defect. The duration of surgery was significantly shorter for IPOM (mean 82.4 vs. 103.4 min, p = 0.010), whereas the length of stay was significantly longer after IPOM (median 1 days vs. 0 days (p < 0.001). The rate of patients requiring postoperative transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block or epidural analgesia was significantly higher after IPOM (33% vs. 0%, p = 0.002). A subgroup analysis on patients undergoing primary ventral hernia showed similar results.
Conclusion: The study found laparoscopic eTEP-RM safe and effective compared to traditional laparoscopic IPOM. The patients undergoing eTEP-RM had significantly reduced need for additional analgesic treatment and length of stay.
Background: The aim of this study was to determine the current utilization patterns of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of aorta (REBOA) for hemorrhage control in nontrauma patients.
Methods: Data on REBOA use in nontrauma emergency general surgery patients from six centers, 2014-2019, was pooled for analysis. We performed descriptive analyses using Fisher’s exact, Student’s t, chi-squared, or Mann-Whitney U tests as appropriate.
Surgical intervention in the pancreas region is complex and carries the risk of complications, also of vascular nature. Bleeding after pancreatic surgery is rare but characterized by high mortality. This review reports epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment strategies of hemorrhage occurring after pancreatic surgery, focusing on the techniques, roles and outcomes of interventional radiology (IR) in this setting. We then describe the roles and techniques of IR in the treatment of other less common types of vascular complications after pancreatic surgery, such as portal vein (PV) stenosis, portal hypertension and bleeding of varices.