de Vries FEE, et al. Systematic review: pharmacotherapy for high-output enterostomies or enteral fistulas. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Aug;46(3):266-273.
RESULTS: Two studies on proton pump inhibitors, six on anti-motility agents, three on histamine receptor antagonists, one on an α2- receptor agonist and eight on somatostatin (analogues) were included. One study examined a proton pump inhibitor and a histamine receptor antagonist within the same patients. Overall, we found evidence for the following medical therapies to be effective: omeprazole, loperamide and codeine, ranitidine and cimetidine. On the basis of these outcomes and clinical experience, we proposed an algorithm for standard of care which consists of high-dose proton pump inhibitors combined with high-dose loperamide as the first step followed by addition of codeine in case of insufficient output reduction. So far, there is insufficient evidence for the standard use of somatostatin (analogues).
CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence on the efficacy of medication to reduce enterostomy or enterocutaneous fistula output is hampered by low quality studies. We propose an algorithm for standard of care output reduction in these patients.