Afferent loop syndrome

Termsinsuk P, Chantarojanasiri T, Pausawasdi N. Diagnosis and treatment of the afferent loop syndrome. Clin J Gastroenterol. 2020 Oct;13(5):660-668.

“ALS is a rare condition with the incidence ranging from 0.2 to 1.0% depending on the type of operation and anastomotic limb reconstruction. ALS has been reported in 0.3–1.0% of patients after total gastrectomy with Billroth II or Roux-en-Y reconstruction, 1% after laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with Billroth II reconstruction, and 0.2% after distal gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y reconstruction [4–6]. Other operations of which ALS can occur include total gastrectomy with loop esophagojejunostomy with simple or pouch Roux-en-Y reconstruction and pancreaticoduodenectomy with conventional loop and Roux-en-Y reconstruction; nonetheless, the data on incidence were limited [7].”

Continue reading

ASCRS Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Left-Sided Colonic Diverticulitis

Hall J, Hardiman K, Lee S, et al. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Left-Sided Colonic Diverticulitis. Dis Colon Rectum. 2020 Jun;63(6):728-747.

Full-text for Emory users.

“This publication summarizes the changing treatment paradigm for patients with left-sided diverticulitis. Although diverticular disease can affect any segment of the large intestine, we will focus on left-sided disease. Bowel preparation, enhanced recovery pathways, and prevention of thromboembolic disease, while relevant to the management of patients with diverticulitis, are beyond the scope of these guidelines and are addressed in other ASCRS clinical practice guidelines.”

Continue reading

Visceral Hypersensitivity

Zhou Q, Verne GN. New insights into visceral hypersensitivity–clinical implications in IBS. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2011 Jun;8(6):349-55.

Key points

  • Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity are present in some patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders
  • Injury to visceral afferents is the most common underlying cause of visceral hypersensitivity that is maintained by either peripheral and/or central nervous system mechanisms
  • Animal models of hypersensitivity have been used to examine the neural mechanisms of hypersensitivity following inflammatory injury, such as alterations in the N-methyl, D-aspartate receptor, dorsal horn neurons or c-Fos
  • Increased intestinal permeability might lead to hypersensitivity and abdominal pain in patients with functional gastrointestinal disorders
  • Functional gastrointestinal disorders are similar to other chronic pain disorders in which persistent nociceptive mechanisms are activated

Continue reading

Pancreaticoduodenectomy in patients with previous Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

Shah MM, Martin BM, Stetler JL, Patel AD, Davis SS, Sarmiento JM, Lin E. Reconstruction Options for Pancreaticoduodenectomy in Patients with Prior Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass. J Laparoendosc Adv Surg Tech A. 2017 Nov;27(11):1185-1191.

Full-text for Emory users.

“In summary, of the 13 patients that have been described in the literature who underwent PD after RYGB, 7 (54%) of these patients underwent reconstruction, similar to our preferred approach (Fig. 2), which involved remnant gastrectomy with the BP limb forming the BP anastomoses. Overall, 8 (61.5%) of the 13 patients had remnant gastrectomy. Five patients did not have a remnant gastrectomy. There are 10 patients in the literature where the surgeon attempted resecting the gastric remnant, and 8 (80%) of these patients had successful remnant gastrectomy. However, based on the published literature, this is clearly a small sampling of what might have actually been performed. We have had three such patients where we performed PD in patients with prior RYGB (similar to Fig. 2a). In all patients, we had adequate BP limb length for the anastomoses. The patients had early recovery of bowel function and were discharged from the hospital on or before postoperative day 5 without any significant complications. Continue reading

Management of enterocutaneous fistulas

Owen RM, Love TP, Perez SD, Srinivasan JK, Sharma J, Pollock JD, Haack CI, Sweeney JF, Galloway JR. Definitive surgical treatment of enterocutaneous fistula: outcomes of a 23-year experience. JAMA Surg. 2013 Feb;148(2):118-26.

Full-text for Emory users.

Figure 1. Causes of enterocutaneous fistula between 1987 and 2010. IBD indicates inflammatory bowel disease; other includes radiation, neoplasm, and trauma. Percentages may total more than 100% owing to the fact that some patients’ ECFs were secondary to multiple causes.

Continue reading

Crohn’s Disease: Biologics and immunomodulators

Hazlewood GS, et al. Comparative effectiveness of immunosuppressants and biologics for inducing and maintaining remission in Crohn’s disease: a network meta-analysis. Gastroenterology. 2015 Feb;148(2):344-54.e5; quiz e14-5.

Free full-text. 

Key Findings: 

“One good-quality RCT and one poor-quality RCT were included. Intravenous infliximab was compared to oral ciclosporin, azathioprine, and the combination of azathioprine and infliximab among moderate-to-severe ulcerative colitis patients without adequate response to corticosteroid treatment. In a pragmatic trial, there was no significant difference in quality-adjusted survival, mortality, colectomy rates, time to colectomy, lengths of hospital stay after randomization, severe adverse reactions or severe adverse effects, and quality of life measures. However, ciclosporin was associated with longer log-transformed hospital stays than infliximab. In the same trial, the UK resource use was considered. It was concluded that the total health service costs for ciclosporin were considerably lower than infliximab and ciclosporin was not less effective than infliximab.

Continue reading

Delayed gastric emptying after Whipple procedure

Mirrielees JA, et al. Pancreatic Fistula and Delayed Gastric Emptying Are the Highest-Impact Complications After Whipple. J Surg Res. 2020 Jun;250:80-87.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: About 10,922 patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy were included for analysis. The most common postoperative complications were DGE (17.3%), POPF (10.1%), incisional SSI (10.0%), and organ/space SSI (6.2%). POPF and DGE were the only complications that demonstrated sizable effects for all clinical and resource utilization outcomes studied. Other complications had sizable effects for only a few of the outcomes or had small effects for all the outcomes.

Continue reading

The utility of biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease, with a focus on fecal calprotectin

Petryszyn P, et al. Faecal calprotectin as a diagnostic marker of inflammatory bowel disease in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms: meta-analysis. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2019 Nov;31(11):1306-1312.

Full-text for Emory users.

“The study aimed to assess efficacy of faecal calprotectin as a diagnostic marker of IBD in patients with symptoms suggestive of such diagnosis. Inclusion criteria comprised experimental and observational studies, adults with gastrointestinal symptoms, calprotectin as index and colonoscopy as reference test, presence of data on/enabling the calculation of diagnostic accuracy parameters. For each study, sensitivity and specificity of faecal calprotectin were analysed as bivariate data. Nineteen studies were identified. The total number of patients was 5032. Calculated pooled sensitivity and specificity were 0.882 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.827-0.921] and 0.799 (95% CI, 0.693-0.875), respectively. Following faecal calprotectin incorporation in the diagnostic work-up of 100 people with suspected IBD, 18 non-IBD patients will have a colonoscopy performed and one patient with the disease will not be referred for this examination. Faecal calprotectin concentration measurement is a useful screening test to rule out IBD, at the same time reducing the need for colonoscopy by 66.7%.”

Continue reading

Choosing the appropriate patch repair based on the duodenal perforation size

Poris S, et al. Routine versus selective upper gastrointestinal contrast series after omental patch repair for gastric or duodenal perforation. Surg Endosc. 2018 Jan; 32(1):400-404.

Full-text for Emory users.

“Age greater than 60 years (p-0.0470, CI-0.76-31.54), pulse rate greater than 110/minute (p-0.0217, CI-1.04-34.48), systolic blood pressure less than 90 mm Hg (p-0.0016, CI-2.04-71.9), haemoglobin level less than 10 g/dl (p-0.0009, CI-2.25-135.02), serum albumin less than 2.5 grams/dl (p-0.0145, CI-1.21-38.31), total lymphocyte count less than 1800 cells/mm-3 (p-0.0003, CI-8.9-42.2), size of perforation greater than 5 mm (p-0.0011, CI-1.09-36.13) were identified as risk factors for releak. Serum albumin, hemoglobin and size of perforation were independent risk factors for prediction of releak on multivariate analysis. The anthropometric parameters namely mean triceps skin fold thickness, mean mid arm circumference and mean body mass index were all significantly less in cases as compared to controls. Releak was found to be a significant cause of death in patients with perforated duodenal ulcer. A total of 8 patients died in both the groups. The mortality rate in the releak group was 55.6% (5 out of 9 patients) compared to 2.7% (3 out of 110 patients) in the control group [p-0.0001].”

Continue reading

Article of interest: Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon

Kapadia MR. Volvulus of the Small Bowel and Colon. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2017 Feb; 30(1):40-45.

Free full-text.

“Volvulus of the intestines involves twisting around a fixed point. It may occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal tract where there is a long, mobile intestinal segment with a narrow mesenteric attachment. Volvulus leads to luminal obstruction and can compromise intestinal blood flow. For this reason, it tends to be a surgical emergency which requires prompt attention. Failure to recognize the signs and symptoms of intestinal volvulus may lead to bowel ischemia and perforation.”

Continue reading