Mortality and treatment outcome following surgical interventions for acute mesenteric ischemia.

Beaulieu RJ, et al. Comparison of open and endovascular treatment of acute mesenteric ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan;59(1):159-64. Erratum in: J Vasc Surg. 2014 Jul;60(1):273.

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Results: Of 23,744 patients presenting with AMI, 4665 underwent interventional treatment from 2005 through 2009. Of these patients, 57.1% were female, and the mean age was 70.5 years. A total of 679 patients underwent vascular intervention; 514 (75.7%) underwent open surgery and 165 (24.3%) underwent endovascular treatment overall during the study period. The proportion of patients undergoing endovascular repair increased from 11.9% of patients in 2005 to 30.0% in 2009. Severity of comorbidities, as measured by the Charlson index, did not differ significantly between the treatment groups. Mortality was significantly more commonly associated with open revascularization compared with endovascular intervention (39.3% vs 24.9%; P = .01). Length of stay was also significantly longer in the patient group undergoing open revascularization (12.9 vs 17.1 days; P = .006). During the study time period, 14.4% of patients undergoing endovascular procedures required bowel resection compared with 33.4% for open revascularization (P < .001). Endovascular repair was also less commonly associated with requirement for TPN support (13.7% vs 24.4%; P = .025).

Conclusions: Endovascular intervention for AMI had increased significantly in the modern era. Among AMI patients undergoing revascularization, endovascular treatment was associated with decreased mortality and shorter length of stay. Furthermore, endovascular intervention was associated with lower rates of bowel resection and need for TPN. Further research is warranted to determine if increased use of endovascular repair could improve overall and gastrointestinal outcomes among patients requiring vascular repair for AMI.

Gupta PK, Natarajan B, Gupta H, Fang X, Fitzgibbons RJ Jr. Morbidity and mortality after bowel resection for acute mesenteric ischemia. Surgery. 2011 Oct;150(4):779-87.

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Results: The 861 patients identified had a median age of 69 years. Thirty-day postoperative morbidity and mortality were 56.6% and 27.9%, respectively. Pre- and intraoperative variables significantly associated with postoperative mortality (C statistic, 0.84) included preoperative do not resuscitate order, open wound, low albumin, dirty vs clean-contaminated case, and poor functional status. Pre- and intraoperative variables significantly associated with postoperative morbidity (C statistic, 0.79) included admission from chronic care facility, recent myocardial infarction, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, requiring ventilator support, preoperative renal failure, previous cardiac surgery, and prolonged operative time. A predictive risk calculator was developed using these variables.

Conclusion: Mortality and morbidity rates after bowel resection for AMI are high. A risk calculator for prediction of postoperative mortality and morbidity has been developed and awaits validation in subsequent studies.

Kougias P, et al. Determinants of mortality and treatment outcome following surgical interventions for acute mesenteric ischemia. J Vasc Surg. 2007 Sep;46(3):467-74.

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Results: A total of 72 patients (41 females, overall mean age 65 years, range 34 to 83 years) were included in the study. Thrombosis and embolism were the cause of AMI in 48 patients (67%) and 24 patients (33%), respectively. Abdominal pain was the most common presenting symptom (96%), followed by nausea (56%). Preoperative angiogram was performed in 61 patients (85%). All patients underwent operative interventions, which included thromboembolectomy (n = 22, 31%), mesenteric bypass grafting (n = 33, 46%), patch angioplasty (n = 9, 12%), reimplantation (n = 5, 7%), and endarterectomy (n = 3, 4%). Bowel resection was necessary in 22 patients (31%) during the initial operation, and second-look operation was performed in 38 patients (53%). Perioperative morbidity and 30-day mortality rates were 39% and 31%, respectively. Univariate analysis showed renal insufficiency (P < .02), age >70 (P < .001), metabolic acidosis (P < .02), and symptom duration (P < .005), and bowel resection in second-look operations (P < .01) were associated with mortality. Logistic regression analysis showed age >70 (P = .03) and prolonged symptom duration (P = .02) were independent predictors of mortality.

Conclusions: Elderly patients and those with a prolonged duration of symptoms had worse outcomes following surgical intervention for AMI. A high index of suspicion with prompt diagnostic evaluation may reduce time delay prior to surgical intervention, which may lead to improved patient survival. Aggressive surgical intervention should be performed as promptly as possible in patients once the diagnosis of AMI is made.

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