Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in patients with surgically altered anatomy

Shimatani M, et al. Recent advances of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using balloon assisted endoscopy for pancreaticobiliary diseases in patients with surgically altered anatomy: Therapeutic strategy and management of difficult cases. Dig Endosc. 2021 Sep;33(6):912-923.

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Abstract: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is considered to be the gold standard for diagnosis and interventions in biliopancreatic diseases. However, ERCP in patients with surgically altered anatomy (SAA) appears to be more difficult compared to cases with normal anatomy. Since the production of a balloon enteroscope (BE) for small intestine disorders, BE had also been used for biliopancreatic diseases in patients with SAA. Since the development of BE-assisted ERCP, the outcomes of procedures, such as stone extraction or drainage, have been reported as favorable. Recently, an interventional endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), such as EUS-guided biliary drainage (EUS-BD), has been developed and is available mainly for patients with difficult cases of ERCP. It is a good option for patients with SAA. The effectiveness of interventional EUS for patients with SAA has been reported. Both BE-assisted ERCP and interventional EUS have advantages and disadvantages. The choice of procedure should be individualized to the patient’s condition or the expertise of the endoscopists. The aim of this review article is to discuss recent advances in interventional ERCP and EUS for patients with SAA.

Shah RJ, et al. A multicenter, U.S. experience of single-balloon, double-balloon, and rotational overtube-assisted enteroscopy ERCP in patients with surgically altered pancreaticobiliary anatomy (with video). Gastrointest Endosc. 2013 Apr;77(4):593-600.

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Results: From January 2008 through October 2009, 129 patients had 180 enteroscopy-ERCPs. Anatomy was Roux-en-Y: gastric bypass (n = 63), hepaticojejunostomy (n = 45), postgastrectomy (n = 6), Whipple procedure (n = 10), and other (n = 5). ERCP success was 81 of 129 (63%). Enteroscopy success: 92 of 129 (71%), of whom 81 of 92 (88%) achieved ERCP success. Reasons for ERCP failure (n = 48): afferent limb entered but pancreaticobiliary anastomosis and/or papilla not reached (n = 23), cannulation failure (n = 11), afferent limb angulation (n = 8), and jejunojejunostomy not identified (n = 6). Select interventions: anastomotic stricturoplasty (cautery ± dilation, n = 16), stone removal (n = 21), stent (n = 25), and direct cholangioscopy (n = 11). ERCP success rates were similar between Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and other long-limb surgical bypass and among SBE, DBE, and rotational overtube enteroscopy. Complications were 16 of 129, 12.4%.

Conclusion: (1) ERCP is successful in nearly two-thirds of long-limb surgical bypass patients and in 88% when the papilla or pancreaticobiliary-enteric anastomosis is reached. (2) Enteroscopy success in long-limb surgical bypass is similar among SBE, DBE, and rotational overtube enteroscopy methods. (3) Referral of long-limb surgical bypass patients who require ERCP to high-volume institutions may be considered before more invasive percutaneous or surgical alternatives.

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