Balzer KM, et al. Anatomic guidelines for the prevention of abdominal wall hematoma induced by trocar placement. Surg Radiol Anat. 1999;21(2):87-9. Full-text for Emory users.
Abstract: A knowledge of the parietal structures of the abdominal wall is necessary to minimize risks of operative procedures like laparoscopy. For means to prevent intraoperative bleeding and the occurrence of abdominal wall hematoma, we studied the course of the inferior epigastric arteries and the ascending branch of the deep circumflex iliac artery in 21 human cadavers. The abdominal wall structures were dissected and the distances of the arteries in relation to anatomic structures such as the umbilicus, pubic symphysis, superior ischial spine and lower edge of the rib-cage were measured. Comparison of the morphometric results obtained with the location of 36 trocar incision sites recommended in the common literature yields the information that about half of these incision sites incur the risk of injuring the arteries.