Totally Extra Peritoneal (e-TEP) Approach for Ventral Hernias

Bui NH, Jørgensen LN, Jensen KK. Laparoscopic intraperitoneal versus enhanced-view totally extraperitoneal retromuscular mesh repair for ventral hernia: a retrospective cohort study. Surg Endosc. 2021 Mar 15.

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Results: A total of 72 patients were included in the study, 43 and 29 of whom underwent IPOM and eTEP-RM repair, respectively. Patient demographics showed no differences in terms of gender, age, smoking and comorbidity. The median age was 57 years and body mass index 30.5 kg/m2. The rate of patients with incisional hernia was higher in the IPOM group (39.5% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.154). There was no difference in horizontal and vertical hernia size defect. The duration of surgery was significantly shorter for IPOM (mean 82.4 vs. 103.4 min, p = 0.010), whereas the length of stay was significantly longer after IPOM (median 1 days vs. 0 days (p < 0.001). The rate of patients requiring postoperative transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block or epidural analgesia was significantly higher after IPOM (33% vs. 0%, p = 0.002). A subgroup analysis on patients undergoing primary ventral hernia showed similar results.

Conclusion: The study found laparoscopic eTEP-RM safe and effective compared to traditional laparoscopic IPOM. The patients undergoing eTEP-RM had significantly reduced need for additional analgesic treatment and length of stay.

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Article of interest: Laparoscopic Lavage vs Primary Resection for Acute Perforated Diverticulitis: Long-term Outcomes From the Scandinavian Diverticulitis (SCANDIV) Randomized Clinical Trial.

Azhar N, Johanssen A, Sundström T, et al. Laparoscopic Lavage vs Primary Resection for Acute Perforated Diverticulitis: Long-term Outcomes From the Scandinavian Diverticulitis (SCANDIV) Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Surg. 2021 Feb 1;156(2):121-127.

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Results: Of 199 randomized patients, 101 were assigned to undergo laparoscopic peritoneal lavage and 98 were assigned to colon resection. At the time of surgery, perforated purulent diverticulitis was confirmed in 145 patients randomized to lavage (n = 74) and resection (n = 71). The median follow-up was 59 (interquartile range, 51-78; full range, 0-110) months, and 3 patients were lost to follow-up, leaving a final analysis of 73 patients who had had laparoscopic lavage (mean [SD] age, 66.4 [13] years; 39 men [53%]) and 69 who had received a resection (mean [SD] age, 63.5 [14] years; 36 men [52%]). Severe complications occurred in 36% (n = 26) in the laparoscopic lavage group and 35% (n = 24) in the resection group (P = .92). Overall mortality was 32% (n = 23) in the laparoscopic lavage group and 25% (n = 17) in the resection group (P = .36). The stoma prevalence was 8% (n = 4) in the laparoscopic lavage group vs 33% (n = 17; P = .002) in the resection group among patients who remained alive, and secondary operations, including stoma reversal, were performed in 36% (n = 26) vs 35% (n = 24; P = .92), respectively. Recurrence of diverticulitis was higher following laparoscopic lavage (21% [n = 15] vs 4% [n = 3]; P = .004). In the laparoscopic lavage group, 30% (n = 21) underwent a sigmoid resection. There were no significant differences in the EuroQoL-5D questionnaire or Cleveland Global Quality of Life scores between the groups.

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The management of breast abscesses

Lam E, Chan T, Wiseman SM. Breast abscess: evidence based management recommendations. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2014 Jul;12(7):753-62.

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Key issues:

  • All breast abscesses should be treated with abscess drainage and concurrent empiric antibiotic therapy.
  • Needle aspiration either with or without ultrasound guidance should be employed as first-line treatment of breast abscesses. However, multiple aspiration sessions may be required.
  • Ultrasound-guided percutaneous catheter placement may be considered as an alternative approach for drainage of larger (>3 cm) abscesses.
  • Surgical incision and drainage is required if needle aspiration or catheter drainage is unsuccessful and there is progression of infection.
  • Surgical incision and drainage should be considered for first-line therapy of large (>5 cm), multiloculated or long-standing breast abscesses.
  • Cultures should be obtained at the time of abscess drainage and antibiotic management tailored to the infecting organism’s susceptibility profile.
  • Empiric antibiotics targeting methicillin-resistant S. aureus may be required for patients who are known to be colonized or considered to be at high risk.
  • For breastfeeding women, the infant should not nurse from the breast with the abscess but may continue nursing from the contralateral, uninfected breast.
  • Future research should prospectively evaluate the utilization of aspiration or percutaneous catheter drainage techniques in terms of frequency of progression of infection requiring surgical management in order to limit selection biases. The optimal frequency of aspirations, time interval between aspirations and duration of catheter placement also requires further study.

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Trocar injuries in laparoscopy

Nishimura M, et al. Complications Related to the Initial Trocar Insertion of 3 Different Techniques: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2019 Jan;26(1):63-70.

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This systematic review aimed to investigate complications related to initial trocar insertion among 3 different laparoscopic techniques: Veress needle (VN) entry, direct trocar entry (DTE), and open entry (OE). A literature search was completed, and complications were assessed. Major vessel injury, gastrointestinal injury, and solid organ injury were defined as major complications. Minor complications were defined as subcutaneous emphysema, extraperitoneal insufflation, omental emphysema, trocar site bleeding, and trocar site infection. Arm-based network meta-analyses were performed to identify the differences in complications among the 3 techniques. Seventeen studies were included in the quantitative analysis. DTE resulted in fewer major complications when compared with VN entry although the difference was not significant (p = .23) as well as significantly fewer minor complications (p < .001). There were no significant differences in minor complications when comparing OE and DTE (p = .74). Fewer major complications were observed with OE compared with VN entry although the difference was not significant (p = .31). There were significantly fewer minor complications for patients who underwent OE (p = .01). DTE patients experienced the least number of minor complications followed by VN entry and OE. In conclusion, major complications are extremely rare, and all 3 insertion methods can be performed without mortality.

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Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy Versus Percutaneous Catheter Drainage for Acute Cholecystitis in High Risk Patients (CHOCOLATE): Multicentre Randomised Clinical Trial

Loozen CS, et al. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy versus percutaneous catheter drainage for acute cholecystitis in high risk patients (CHOCOLATE): multicentre randomised clinical trial. BMJ. 2018 Oct 8; 363:k3965.

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what this study adds

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Dor versus Toupet fundoplication after laparoscopic Heller myotomy

Torres-Villalobos G, et al. Dor Vs Toupet Fundoplication After Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy: Long-Term Randomized Controlled Trial Evaluated by High-Resolution Manometry. J Gastrointest Surg. 2018 Jan;22(1):13-22.

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Surgical data table

Results: Seventy-three patients were randomized, 38 underwent Dor and 35 Toupet. Baseline characteristics were similar between groups. Postoperative HRM showed that the integrated relaxation pressure (IRP) and basal lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure were similar at 6 and 24 months. The number of patients with abnormal acid exposure was significantly lower for Dor (6.9%) than that of Toupet (34.0%) at 6 months, but it was not different at 12 or 24 months. No differences were found in postoperative symptom scores at 1, 6, or 24 months.

Conclusion: There were no differences in symptom scores or HRM between fundoplications in the long term. A higher percentage of abnormal 24-h pH test were found for the Toupet group, with no difference in the long term.

More PubMed results on Dor vs.Toupet fundoplication after Heller myotomy.

What is the impact of abdominal binder on seroma formation?

One discussion this week included the impact of abdominal binder on seroma formation.

Reference: Christoffersen MW, Olsen BH, Rosenberg J, Bisgaard T. Randomized clinical trial on the postoperative use of an abdominal binder after laparoscopic umbilical and epigastric hernia repair. Hernia. 2015 Feb;19(1):147-153. doi:10.1007/s10029-014-1289-6

Summary: Application of an abdominal binder is often part of a standard postoperative regimen after ventral hernia repair to reduce pain and seroma formation. However, there is lack of evidence of the clinical effects.

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Intraoperative cardiac arrest: Resuscitation and Management

One discussion this week included intraoperative cardiac arrest.

Reference: Moitra VK, et al. Cardiac arrest in the operating room: resuscitation and management for the anesthesiologist: part 1. Anesthesia & Analgesia. 2018 Mar;126(3):876-888. doi: 10.1213/ANE.0000000000002596.

Summary: Cardiac arrest in the operating room and procedural areas has a different spectrum of causes (ie, hypovolemia, gas embolism, and hyperkalemia), and rapid and appropriate evaluation and management of these causes require modification of traditional cardiac arrest algorithms. There is a small but growing body of literature describing the incidence, causes, treatments, and outcomes of circulatory crisis and perioperative cardiac arrest. These events are almost always witnessed, frequently known, and involve rescuer providers with knowledge of the patient and their procedure.

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Meta-analysis, systematic review of carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosis

One discussion this week involved carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs) in the setting of respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosisa.

Reference: Tanios BY, et al. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors in patients with respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Critical Care. 2018 Oct 29;22(1):275.  doi: 10.1186/s13054-018-2207-6

Summary: Metabolic alkalosis is common in patients with respiratory failure and may delay weaning in mechanically ventilated patientsCarbonic anhydrase inhibitors (such as acetazolamide, methazolamide, and dichlorphenamide) block renal bicarbonate reabsorption, and thus reverse metabolic alkalosis. However, uncertainty remains about
their effects in the setting of respiratory failure with concurrent metabolic alkalosis on duration of hospitalization, mechanical ventilation (MV), or noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV), and mortality.

The objective of this systematic review is to assess the benefits and harms of carbonic anhydrase inhibitor therapy in patients with respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosis.

Randomized clinical trials were included if they assessed at least one of the following outcomes: mortality, duration of hospital stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, adverse events, and blood gas parameters. Six eligible studies were identified with a total of 564 patients.

There were no definitive results for the effects of CAI therapy on clinically important outcomes such as mortality and duration of hospital stay in patients with respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosis. The results suggest that CAI therapy may decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation. There was a trend towards increased incidence of adverse events in the CAI group; however, most of these adverse events were mild.

On the other hand, the results suggest that CAI therapy has favorable effects on arterial blood gas parameters (PaCO2, PaO2, bicarbonate and pH), with decreased PaCO2, increased PaO2, and, as expected, decreased bicarbonate and pH levels.


In patients with respiratory failure and metabolic alkalosiscarbonic anhydrase inhibitor therapy may have favorable effects on blood gas parameters. The authors note that this analysis did not provide conclusive results for clinically important outcomes.

In mechanically ventilated patientscarbonic anhydrase inhibitor therapy may decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation. A major limitation was that only two trials assessed this clinically important outcome.

HAP vs VAP treatment: a flowchart

One discussion this week involved treatment for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP).

Reference: Kenny JES. IDSA Guidelines 2016: HAP, VAP & It’s the End of HCAP as We Know It (And I Feel Fine) [website]. 2016 Jul 30. Retrieved from

Summary: “While the current [IDSA 2016] guidelines discuss a number of issues germane to HAP and VAP including: microbiological evaluation, ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis, the use of biomarkers and clinical prediction scores, inhaled antibiotics, etc. this post will focus on standard, empiric therapy as this is a common clinical quandary [see figure 1]” (Kenny 2016).

hap vap

“The current guidelines recommend 7 days of antimicrobial therapy for both HAP and VAP.  The authors conducted their own meta-analysis and found no difference in mortality or recurrence between long and short-courses of therapy.  This is incongruent with an often referenced trial in 2003 which noted a higher pneumonia recurrence rate if non-fermenting gram negative bacilli [e.g. pseudomonas] were isolated and patients were treated with 8 days versus 15 days of anti-microbials” (Kenny 2016).