Cappell MS, Mahajan D, Kurupath V. Characterization of ischemic colitis associated with myocardial infarction: an analysis of 23 patients. Am J Med. 2006 Jun;119(6): 527.e1-9.
Full-text for Emory users.
Results: Of 17,500 patients admitted to the study sites with MI, 23 (0.13%) had IC. Study patients had a high in-hospital mortality of 39%. An Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score greater than 15 was a significant predictor of mortality in these patients (P<.04). Compared with the IC-controls, study patients had a significantly lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) (76.0 +/- 17.1 mm Hg vs 98.3 +/- 18.6 mm Hg, P<.0001) and a significantly higher rate of hypotension (57% vs 9%, odds ratio [OR] = 12.6, confidence interval [CI]: 3.10-49.7, P<.001). The 2 groups, however, had a similar mean number of risk factors for thromboembolism per patient. Study patients had more severe illness than IC-controls, as demonstrated by mean APACHE II scores (19.0 +/- 5.5 vs 10.4 +/- 4.8, P<.0001). Study patients had a significantly higher incidence of complications, including respiratory failure (57% vs 13%, P=.001), altered mental status (48% vs 13%, P<.01), and renal insufficiency or failure (61% vs 28%, P<.04). Study patients had a significantly lower minimum hematocrit. Study patients had a significantly higher rate of prolonged hospitalization (>30 days) or in-hospital death (74% vs 19%, OR = 12.3, CI: 3.47-43.5, P<.0001). Compared with MI-control patients, study patients had a significantly lower MAP, significantly higher rate of hypotension, much higher mean APACHE II score, much higher incidence of complications, and significantly worse hospital outcome.
Conclusions: Patients with both IC and MI present as a clinically distinct group from patients with either IC alone or MI alone. They have significantly more complications and worse in-hospital prognoses. They present with a dramatically lower MAP and a higher frequency of hypotension. This last finding suggests that the most common and most important mechanism for IC with MI may be hypotension from cardiogenic shock. Hypotension is the cardinal risk factor for generalized NOMI with acute mesenteric ischemia and may be an important risk factor for localized NOMI with IC. An APACHE II score greater than 15 may be a predictor of mortality from IC after MI.
Cubiella Fernández J, et al. Risk factors associated with the development of ischemic colitis. World J Gastroenterol. 2010 Sep 28;16(36):4564-9.
Hourmand-Ollivier I, et al. Cardiac sources of embolism should be routinely screened in ischemic colitis. Am J Gastroenterol. 2003 Jul;98(7):1573-7. Full-text for Emory users.
Reilly PM, Wilkins KB, Fuh KC, Haglund U, Bulkley GB. The mesenteric hemodynamic response to circulatory shock: an overview. Shock. 2001 May;15(5):329-43.