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Dumon K, Dempsey DT. (2019). Postgastrectomy Syndromes. Shackelford’s Surgery of the Alimentary Tract, 8th ed.: 719-734.
“Hypergastrinemia after distal gastrectomy can be caused by gastrinoma or retained antrum. In the latter there is residual antral tissue left in continuity with the duodenal stump after gastric resection with Billroth II anastomosis. The G cells in this retained antral tissue are not exposed to luminal acid, resulting in continuous secretion of gastrin and intense stimulation of acid production by parietal cells in the proximal gastric remnant. The exposure of the unbuffered jejunum to this high acid level at the Billroth II GJ results in marginal ulcer (see Fig. 62.12B ).
Clinical suspicion of retained antrum may be confirmed by review of previous operative and pathology reports, barium upper GI study, and/or technetium 99m scan. Reexcision is curative. Gastrinoma is suspected when secretin infusion leads to significant further elevation of gastrin level. CT, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), and octreotide scan may be helpful, but exploration by an experienced surgeon is the best way to find the tumor(s) if operation is indicated.”
Bolton JS, Conway WC 2nd. Postgastrectomy syndromes. Surg Clin North Am. 2011
Katsinelos P, et al. Education and imaging. Gastrointestinal: retained gastric antrum. J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Mar;22(3):448.
Gibril F, et al. Retained gastric antrum syndrome: a forgotten, treatable cause of refractory peptic ulcer disease. Dig Dis Sci. 2001 Mar;46(3):610-7.