Surgical management of mycotic aortic aneurysms

Huang YK, et al. Clinical, microbiologic, and outcome analysis of mycotic aortic aneurysm: the role of endovascular repair. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2014 Jun;15(3): 290-8.

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Results: All of the patients had positive blood cultures, radiologic findings typical of MAA, and clinical signs of infection (leukocytosis, fever, and elevated C-reactive protein). The mean age of the patients was 63.8±10.6 y and the mean period of their follow up was 35.7±39.3 mo. Twenty-nine patients with MAAs underwent traditional open surgery, 11 others received endovascular stent grafts, and four MAAs were managed conservatively. The most frequent causative pathogens were Salmonella (36/44 patients [81.8%]), in whom organisms of Salmonella serogroup C (consisting mainly of S. choleraesuis) were identified in 14 patients, organisms of Salmonella serogroup D were identified in 13 patients, and species without serogroup information were identified in nine patients. The overall mortality in the study population was 43.2% (with an aneurysm-related mortality of 18.2%, surgically related mortality of 13.6%, and in-hospital mortality of 22.7%).

Conclusions: Shock is a risk factor for operative mortality. Misdiagnosis and treatment of MAA as low back pain, co-existing connective-tissue disease such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, and Salmonella serogroup C-associated bacteremia are risk factors for aneurysm-related death. Endovascular repair should be considered as an alternative option to the open repair of MAA.

Lee CH, et al. Treatment of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm caused by Salmonella. Ann Vasc Surg. 2014 Jan;28(1):217-26.

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Results: The in-hospital mortality rate for the surgical therapy group was 14%, while the rate for the medical therapy group was 100%. Overall survival for the surgical therapy group was 82%, while the reinfection rate was 9%. In the surgical therapy group, 2 patients had periaortic abscesses and underwent in situ prosthetic graft replacement; none developed graft-related complications or died in the hospital. Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank testing revealed no significant differences in graft-related complication and overall survival rates between in situ prosthetic graft group and extra-anatomic bypass group. Salmonella choleraesuis had a higher antimicrobial resistance rate than other isolates. The predictors of survival were clinical presentation of abdominal pain and receiving surgical therapy.

Conclusions: If patients with Salmonella-infected AAAs have good responses to preoperative antibiotic therapy, in situ prosthetic graft replacement is a viable revascularization method, even in the situation of periaortic abscess presentation formation.

Dubois M, et al. Treatment of mycotic aneurysms with involvement of the abdominal aorta: single-centre experience in 44 consecutive cases. Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg. 2010 Oct;40(4):450-6.

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Results: Twenty-one (47.7%) of the mycotic aneurysms had already ruptured at the time of surgery. Free rupture was present in nine patients (20.5%). Contained rupture was observed in 12 patients (27.3%). Urgent surgery was performed in 18 cases (40.9%). Revascularisation was achieved by in-situ reconstruction in 37 patients (84.1%), while extra-anatomic reconstruction was performed in six patients (13.6%). One patient (2.3%) was treated with a combined in-situ and extra-anatomic reconstruction. In one case (2.3%), endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) was performed. In-hospital mortality was 22.7%, 50% in the extra-anatomic reconstruction group and 18.9% in the in-situ repair group. One-third (33.3%) of our patients, who presented with a ruptured mycotic aneurysm died in the peri-operative period. This mortality was 13% in the patient-group presenting with an intact aneurysm. Of the 34 surviving patients, 12 patients (27.3% of surviving patients died after discharge from our hospital. In half of these patients, an acute cardiac event was to blame. Three patients (8%) showed re-infection after in-situ reconstruction.

Conclusion: Management of mycotic aortic aneurysms remains a challenging problem. The results of surgery depend on many factors. In our experience, in-situ repair remains a feasible and safe treatment option for patients who are in good general condition at the time of surgery.

More PubMed results on MAAs.

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