Surgical management of mycotic aortic aneurysms

Huang YK, et al. Clinical, microbiologic, and outcome analysis of mycotic aortic aneurysm: the role of endovascular repair. Surg Infect (Larchmt). 2014 Jun;15(3): 290-8.

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Results: All of the patients had positive blood cultures, radiologic findings typical of MAA, and clinical signs of infection (leukocytosis, fever, and elevated C-reactive protein). The mean age of the patients was 63.8±10.6 y and the mean period of their follow up was 35.7±39.3 mo. Twenty-nine patients with MAAs underwent traditional open surgery, 11 others received endovascular stent grafts, and four MAAs were managed conservatively. The most frequent causative pathogens were Salmonella (36/44 patients [81.8%]), in whom organisms of Salmonella serogroup C (consisting mainly of S. choleraesuis) were identified in 14 patients, organisms of Salmonella serogroup D were identified in 13 patients, and species without serogroup information were identified in nine patients. The overall mortality in the study population was 43.2% (with an aneurysm-related mortality of 18.2%, surgically related mortality of 13.6%, and in-hospital mortality of 22.7%).

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The surgical management of mycotic (infected) aneurysms

Razavi MK, Razavi MD. Stent-graft treatment of mycotic aneurysms: a review of the current literature. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2008;19(6 Suppl):S51–S56.

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“Mycotic aneurysms are rare but are associated with a high risk of rupture if not treated promptly. The early mortality rate associated with traditional surgery depends on patients’ condition and can be as high as 43%. The use of stent-grafts is less invasive but the outcome is unproven in the setting of infected aneurysms. In an attempt to better elucidate the role of stent-grafts in this setting, a literature search was performed to examine 52 articles describing 91 patients with mycotic aneurysms who were treated with stent-grafts. The early mortality rate was 5.6%. Incidences of late aneurysm-related mortality and complications were 12.2% and 7.8%, respectively. The most consistent predictor of poor outcome was development of aortoenteric fistula. Although the 30-day mortality rate associated with the use of stent-grafts appears to be lower than that associated with surgery, late aneurysm-related events are frequent and warrant a more vigilant follow-up regimen than used with noninfected aneurysms.”

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