Practice Guideline: The AAES guidelines for the definitive surgical management of thyroid disease in adults

Patel KN, Yip L, Lubitz CC, et al. The American Association of Endocrine Surgeons (AAES) Guidelines for the Definitive Surgical Management of Thyroid Disease in Adults. Ann Surg. 2020 Mar;271(3):e21-e93. Full-text for Emory users.

See also: Patel KN, Yip L, Lubitz CC, et al. Executive Summary of the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons Guidelines for the Definitive Surgical Management of Thyroid Disease in Adults. Ann Surg. 2020 Mar;271(3):399-410. Full-text for Emory users.

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Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) Inhibitor Associated Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis

Thanks to LeslieAnn S. Kao, MD (General Surgery PGY-4) for suggesting this topic.


Somagutta MR, et al. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors: A Focused Review of Pathophysiology, Risk Factors, and Triggers. Cureus. 2021 Mar 3;13(3):e13665.

The underlying mechanism is mainly enhanced lipolysis and ketone body reabsorption. SGLT2i also stimulates pancreatic alpha cells and inhibits beta cells, causing an imbalance in glucagon/insulin levels, further contributing to lipolysis and ketogenesis. Most patients were diagnosed with blood glucose less than 200 mg/dL, blood pH <7.3, increased anion gap, increased blood, or urine ketones. Perioperative fasting, pancreatic etiology, low carbohydrate or ketogenic diet, obesity, and malignancy are identified precipitants in this review. As normoglycemia can conceal the underlying acidosis, physicians should be cognizant of the EDKA diagnosis and initiate prompt treatment. Patient education on risk factors and triggers is recommended to avoid future events.

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Surgical management of pheochromocytoma

Fu SQ, Wang SY, Chen Q, Liu YT, Li ZL, Sun T. Laparoscopic versus open surgery for pheochromocytoma: a meta-analysis. BMC Surg. 2020 Jul 25;20(1):167.

Results: Fourteen studies involving 626 patients were included in this meta-analysis. LS was associated with lower rates of intraoperative haemodynamic instability (IHD) [odds ratio (OR) = 0.61, 95% CI: 0.37 to 1.00, P = 0.05], less intraoperative blood loss [weighted mean difference (WMD) = – 115.27 ml, 95% confidence interval (CI): – 128.54 to – 101.99, P < 0.00001], lower blood transfusion rates [OR = 0.33, 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.52, P < 0.00001], earlier ambulation (WMD = – 1.57 d, 95% CI: – 1.97 to – 1.16, P < 0.00001) and food intake (WMD = – 0.98 d, 95% CI: – 1.36 to – 0.59, P < 0.00001), shorter drainage tube indwelling time (WMD = – 0.51 d, 95% CI: – 0.96 to – 0.07, P = 0.02) and postoperative stay (WMD = – 3.17 d, 95% CI: – 4.76 to – 1.58, P < 0.0001), and lower overall complication rates (OR = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.35 to 0.88, P = 0.01). However, no significant differences in operative time, postoperative blood pressure control, rates of severe complications, postoperative hypotension or cardiovascular disease (CVD) were found between the two groups.

Conclusions: LS is safe and effective for PHEO resection. Compared with OS, LS caused less IHD, providing an equal chance to cure hypertension while also yielding a faster and better postoperative recovery.

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Surgical management of insulinomas

Andreassen M, Ilett E, Wiese D, et al. Surgical Management, Preoperative Tumor Localization, and Histopathology of 80 Patients Operated on for Insulinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2019 Dec 1;104(12):6129-6138.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: Eighty patients were included. Seven had a malignant tumor. A total of 312 diagnostic examinations were performed: endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS; n = 59; sensitivity, 70%), MRI (n = 33; sensitivity, 58%), CT (n = 55; sensitivity, 47%), transabdominal ultrasonography (US; n = 45; sensitivity, 40%), somatostatin receptor imaging (n = 17; sensitivity, 29%), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (n = 1; negative), percutaneous transhepatic venous sampling (n = 10; sensitivity, 90%), arterial stimulation venous sampling (n = 20; sensitivity, 65%), and intraoperative US (n = 72; sensitivity, 89%). Fourteen tumors could not be visualized. Invasive methods were used in 7 of these 14 patients and localized the tumor in all cases. Median tumor size was 15 mm (range, 7 to 80 mm). Tumors with malignant vs benign behavior showed less staining for insulin (3 of 7 vs 66 of 73; P = 0.015) and for proinsulin (3 of 6 vs 58 of 59; P < 0.001). Staining for glucagon was seen in 2 of 6 malignant tumors and in no benign tumors (P < 0.001). Forty-three insulinomas stained negative for somatostatin receptor subtype 2a.

Conclusion: Localization of insulinomas requires many different diagnostic procedures. Most tumors can be localized by conventional imaging, including EUS. For nonvisible tumors, invasive methods may be a useful diagnostic tool. Malignant tumors showed reduced staining for insulin and proinsulin and increased staining for glucagon.

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Patient Selection for Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation in the Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis

Morgan KA, Lancaster WP, Owczarski SM, et al. Patient Selection for Total Pancreatectomy with Islet Autotransplantation in the Surgical Management of Chronic Pancreatitis. J Am Coll Surg. 2018 Apr;226(4):446-451.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients (141 women, aged 40.3 years, BMI 26.5 kg/m2) underwent TPIAT. Mean duration of disease before operation was 8.1 years. Fifty-six (29%) patients had pancreatic operations before TPIAT, 37 (19%) patients were diabetic preoperatively, and 52 (27%) patients were smokers. A mean of 3,253 islet equivalents transplanted/kg were harvested. Insulin independence was achieved in 29%, 28%, and 23% of patients at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperative. Nonsmokers with a shorter duration of chronic pancreatitis and no earlier pancreas operation were more likely to be insulin free. Median number of preoperative emergency department visits and hospitalizations were 6.6 and 4.3 annually, respectively, compared with 0 at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperative. Median oral morphine equivalents were 214 mg/kg preoperation and 60, 64, 69, at 1, 2, 5 years postoperative. Preoperative, 1, 2, 5 years postoperative QOL scores were 29, 36, 34, and 33 (physical; p < 0.01) and 39, 44, 42, and 42 (mental health; p < 0.02). Genetic pancreatitis patients were more often narcotic free and had better QOL than patients with pancreatitis of other causes. At 5 years, overall survival was 92.3%.

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Article of Interest: Avoiding Pitfalls in Insulinomas by Preoperative Localization with a Dual Imaging Approach

Ramonell KM, Saunders ND, Sarmiento J, Bercu Z, Martin L, Weber CJ, Sharma J, Patel SG. Avoiding pitfalls in insulinomas by preoperative localization with a dual imaging approach. Am Surg. 2019 Jul 1;85(7):742-746.

Full-text for Emory users.

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Bariatric Surgery vs. Medical Therapy for Diabetes and Obesity

Schauer PR, Bhatt DL, Kirwan JP, et al. Bariatric Surgery versus Intensive Medical Therapy for Diabetes–5-Year Outcomes.N Engl J Med. 2017;376(7):641–651.

Full-text for Emory users.

“At 5 years, the criterion for the primary end point was met by 2 of 38 patients
(5%) who received medical therapy alone, as compared with 14 of 49 patients (29%) who underwent gastric bypass (unadjusted P=0.01, adjusted P=0.03, P=0.08 in the intention to-treat analysis) and 11 of 47 patients (23%) who underwent sleeve gastrectomy (unadjusted P=0.03, adjusted P=0.07, P=0.17 in the intention-to-treat analysis). Patients who underwent surgical procedures had a greater mean percentage reduction from baseline in glycated hemoglobin level than did patients who received medical therapy alone (2.1% vs. 0.3%, P=0.003). At 5 years, changes from baseline observed in the gastric-bypass and sleeve-gastrectomy groups were superior to the changes seen in the medical-therapy group with respect to body weight (−23%, −19%, and −5% in the gastric-bypass, sleeve gastrectomy, and medical-therapy groups, respectively), triglyceride level (−40%, −29%, and −8%), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level (32%, 30%, and 7%), use of insulin (−35%, −34%, and −13%), and quality-of-life measures (general health score increases of 17, 16, and 0.3; scores on the RAND 36-Item Health Survey ranged from 0 to 100, with higher scores indicating better health) (P<0.05 for all comparisons).”

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