The utility of intraoperative perfusion assessment during resection of colorectal cancer

De Nardi P, et al. Intraoperative angiography with indocyanine green to assess anastomosis perfusion in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection: results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Surg Endosc. 2020 Jan;34(1):53-60.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: After randomization, 12 patients were excluded. Accordingly, 240 patients were included in the analysis; 118 were in the study group, and 122 in the control group. ICG angiography showed insufficient perfusion of the colic stump, which led to extended bowel resection in 13 cases (11%). An anastomotic leak developed in 11 patients (9%) in the control group and in 6 patients (5%) in the study group (p = n.s.).

Conclusions: Intraoperative ICG fluorescent angiography can effectively assess vascularization of the colic stump and anastomosis in patients undergoing colorectal resection. This method led to further proximal bowel resection in 13 cases, however, there was no statistically significant reduction of anastomotic leak rate in the ICG arm.

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Article of interest: A systematic review of pre-surgical exercise intervention studies with cancer patients

Singh F, et al. A systematic review of pre-surgical exercise intervention studies with cancer patients. Surg Oncol. 2013 Jun;22(2):92-104. Full-text for Emory users.

Results: Eighteen studies were included consisting of a total of 966 participants. Lung cancer studies were the predominant group represented. Most of the studies prescribed an aerobic intervention programs done prior to surgery. Mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of exercise intervention varied across the different cancer groups. The majority of studies showed preliminary positive change in clinical outcomes with significant improvements in the rate of incontinence, functional walking capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness.

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Periprocedural bridging anticoagulation

Rechenmacher SJ, Fang JC. Bridging Anticoagulation: Primum Non Nocere. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Sep 22;66(12):1392-403.

Full-text for Emory users.

Conclusions: Periprocedural anticoagulation management is a common clinical dilemma with limited evidence (but 1 notable randomized trial) to guide our practices. Although bridging anticoagulation may be necessary for those patients at highest risk for TE, for most patients it produces excessive bleeding, longer length of hospital stay, and other significant morbidities, while providing no clear prevention of TE. Unfortunately, contemporary clinical practice, as noted in physician surveys, continues to favor interruption of OAC and the use of bridging anticoagulation. While awaiting the results of additional randomized trials, physicians should carefully reconsider the practice of routine bridging and whether periprocedural anticoagulation interruption is even necessary.

Central Illustration. Bridging Anticoagulation: Algorithms for Periprocedural Interrupting and Bridging Anticoagulation. Decision trees for periprocedural interruption of chronic oral anticoagulation (top) and for periprocedural bridging anticoagulation (bottom). OAC = oral anticoagulation.

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Obstructive jaundice and coagulation disturbances

Pavlidis ET, Pavlidis TE. Pathophysiological consequences of obstructive jaundice and perioperative management. Hepatobiliary Pancreat Dis Int. 2018 Feb;17(1):17-21.

Full-text for Emory users.

“Proper management includes full replacement of water and electrolyte deficiency, prophylactic antibiotics, lactulose, vitamin K and fresh frozen plasma, albumin and dopamine. The preoperative biliary drainage has not been indicated in overall, but only in a few selected cases.”

“The coagulation disorders and the resulting hemostasis impairment have been attributed to the complement activation by endotoxin as well as to the reduced synthesis of prothrombin (factor II) in the liver and the other vitamin K depended coagulation factors i.e. VII, IX, X and proteins C, S, Z. The absence of bile salts in the gut prevents the absorption of vitamin K, which is a fat-soluble vitamin. In addition, the endogenous microbial flora produces small amounts of vitamin K. Subsequently the reduced vitamin K absorption results in its deficiency. The latter predisposes to bleeding diathesis, despite the normal laboratory indices such as prothrombin time (PTT) and international normalized ratio (INR). Likewise, the other fat-soluble vitamin D and lipids absorption is diminished resulting in their deficiency and calcium reduction.” (Pavlidis, et al., p. 19.)

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Guidelines for the perioperative management of anticoagulants

One discussion this week focused on the perioperative management of NOACs.


Reference:  DynaMed Plus [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Information Services. 1995 -. Record No. 227537, Periprocedural management of patients on long-term anticoagulation; [updated 2018 Oct 10, cited 2018 Oct 12; [about 26 screens]. Emory login required.

Summary: The information below is from DynaMed Plus (2018). To view full information on the topic, click on the citation above.

Vitamin K antagonists in patients undergoing major surgery or procedures

  • Consider continuing vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy in patients who require minor dental procedures, minor dermatological procedures, or cataract surgery.
  • In those having a minor dental procedure, consider coadministering an oral hemostatic agent or stopping the VKA 2 to 3 days before the procedure.
  • In those undergoing implantation of a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter device, consider continuing VKA therapy.
  • In those having a major surgery or procedure, stop VKA therapy 5 days before surgery.
  • Resume VKA therapy 12-24 hours after surgery when there is adequate hemostasis.

Bridging therapy in patients undergoing major surgery or procedures

  • If at low risk for thrombosis, consider omitting bridging therapy.
  • If at moderate risk for thrombosis, assess individual patient- and surgery-related factors when considering bridging therapy.
  • If at high risk for thrombosis consider bridging therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH).
  • For those receiving bridging therapy with UFH, stop UFH 4-6 hours before surgery.
  • For those receiving bridging therapy with therapeutic-dose LMWH, stop LMWH 24 hours before surgery.
  • For those receiving bridging therapy with UFH or therapeutic-dose LMWH and undergoing non-high-bleeding-risk surgery, consider resuming heparin 24 hours after surgery.
  • For those receiving bridging therapy with UFH or therapeutic-dose LMWH and undergoing high-bleeding-risk surgery, consider resuming heparin 48-72 hours after surgery.

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Perioperative Management of Biologic and Immunosuppressive Medications in Patients With Crohn’s Disease

Lightner AL. Perioperative Management of Biologic and Immunosuppressive
Medications in Patients With Crohn’s Disease. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Apr;61(4): 428-431.

EVALUATION AND TREATMENT ALGORITHMS

Algorithm 1

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