Article of interest: Comparison of three methods of liver retraction in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

Goel R, et al. Randomized controlled trial comparing three methods of liver retraction in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Endosc. 2013 Feb;27(2):679-84.

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate differences between three methods of liver retraction during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (LRYGB) and to compare novel liver retraction techniques with the traditional mechanical liver retractor in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: In this study, 60 obese patients (26 males and 34 females) who underwent LRYGB between January and July 2010 were randomized to one of three groups (20 in each): group 1 (Nathanson liver retractor), group 2 (liver suspension tape), and group 3 (V-shaped liver suspension technique [V-LIST]). Data regarding demographics (age, sex, body mass index); liver function test (LFT) just before surgery; postoperative results immediately, then 18 h, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery; operative data, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain on postoperative days (PODs) 1 and 2 were calculated and analyzed.

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D-dimer testing to determine the duration of anticoagulation therapy

Palareti G, Cosmi B, Legnani C, et al.; DULCIS Investigators. D-dimer to guide the duration of anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism: a management study. Blood. 2014 Jul 10;124(2):196-203.

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The optimal duration of anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We investigated whether persistently negative D-dimers in patients with vein recanalization or stable thrombotic burden can identify subjects at low recurrence risk. Outpatients with a first VTE (unprovoked or associated with weak risk factors) were eligible after at least 3 months (12 in those with residual thrombosis) of anticoagulation. They received serial D-dimer measurements using commercial assays with predefined age/sex-specific cutoffs and were followed for up to 2 years. Of 1010 patients, anticoagulation was stopped in 528 (52.3%) with persistently negative D-dimer who subsequently experienced 25 recurrences (3.0% pt-y; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.4%). Of the remaining 482 patients, 373 resumed anticoagulation and 109 refused it. Recurrent VTE developed in 15 patients (8.8% pt-y; 95% CI, 5.0-14.1) of the latter group and in 4 of the former (0.7% pt-y; 95% CI, 0.2-1.7; hazard ratio = 2.92; 95% CI, 1.87-9.72; P = .0006). Major bleeding occurred in 14 patients (2.3% pt-y; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9) who resumed anticoagulation. Serial D-dimer measurement is suitable in clinical practice for the identification of VTE patients in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued. This study was registered at as #NCT00954395.

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Trocar injuries in laparoscopy

Nishimura M, et al. Complications Related to the Initial Trocar Insertion of 3 Different Techniques: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Minim Invasive Gynecol. 2019 Jan;26(1):63-70.

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This systematic review aimed to investigate complications related to initial trocar insertion among 3 different laparoscopic techniques: Veress needle (VN) entry, direct trocar entry (DTE), and open entry (OE). A literature search was completed, and complications were assessed. Major vessel injury, gastrointestinal injury, and solid organ injury were defined as major complications. Minor complications were defined as subcutaneous emphysema, extraperitoneal insufflation, omental emphysema, trocar site bleeding, and trocar site infection. Arm-based network meta-analyses were performed to identify the differences in complications among the 3 techniques. Seventeen studies were included in the quantitative analysis. DTE resulted in fewer major complications when compared with VN entry although the difference was not significant (p = .23) as well as significantly fewer minor complications (p < .001). There were no significant differences in minor complications when comparing OE and DTE (p = .74). Fewer major complications were observed with OE compared with VN entry although the difference was not significant (p = .31). There were significantly fewer minor complications for patients who underwent OE (p = .01). DTE patients experienced the least number of minor complications followed by VN entry and OE. In conclusion, major complications are extremely rare, and all 3 insertion methods can be performed without mortality.

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Article of interest: The Landmark Series: MSLT-1, MSLT-2 and DeCOG (Management of Lymph Nodes)

Bello DM, Faries MB. The Landmark Series: MSLT-1, MSLT-2 and DeCOG (Management of Lymph Nodes). Ann Surg Oncol. 2020 Jan;27(1):15-21.

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Management of regional lymph nodes in patients with melanoma has evolved significantly in recent years. The value of nodal intervention, long utilized for its perceived therapeutic benefit, has now shifted to that of a critical prognostic procedure used to guide clinical decision making. This review focuses on the three landmark, randomized controlled trials evaluating the role of surgery for regional lymph nodes in melanoma: Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial I (MSLT-I), German Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group-Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial (DeCOG-SLT), and Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trial II (MSLT-II).

A randomised trial of post-discharge enteral feeding following surgical resection of an upper gastrointestinal malignancy

Froghi F, et al. A randomised trial of post-discharge enteral feeding following surgical resection of an upper gastrointestinal malignancy. Clin Nutr. 2017 Dec;36(6):1516-1519.

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RESULTS: 44 patients (M:F, 29:15) were randomised, 23 received jejunal supplements. There were no differences between the groups. Percentage of calculated energy requirement received was greater in the supplemented group at weeks 3 and 6 (p < 0.0001). Oral energy intake was not different between the groups at any time period. After hospital discharge, there were no differences in MFI-20, EQ5D and QLQ-OES18 scores at any time point. From hospital discharge fatigue improved and plateaued at 6 weeks (p < 0.05 for both groups), independence at 12 weeks (p < 0.05 for both groups). No improvement was seen in quality of life until 24 weeks in the active group alone (p < 0.02) and not at all in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: Addition of jejunal feeding is effective in providing patients with an adequate energy intake. Increased energy intake however, produced no obvious improvement in measures of fatigue, quality of life or health economics.

Rate of postoperative biliary complications during major liver resection reduced by intraoperative air leak test

Zimmitti G, Vauthey JN, et al. Systematic use of an intraoperative air leak test
at the time of major liver resection reduces the rate of postoperative biliary
complications. J Am Coll Surg. 2013 Dec;217(6):1028-37.

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STUDY DESIGN: Rates of postoperative biliary complications were compared among 103 patients who underwent ALT and 120 matched patients operated on before ALT was used. All study patients underwent major hepatectomy without bile duct resection at 3 high-volume hepatobiliary centers between 2008 and 2012. The ALT was performed by placement of a transcystic cholangiogram catheter to inject air into the biliary tree, the upper abdomen was filled with saline, and the distal common bile duct was manually occluded. Uncontrolled bile ducts were identified by localization of air bubbles at the transection surface and were directly repaired.

RESULTS: The 2 groups were similar in diagnosis, chemotherapy use, tumor number and size, resection extent, surgery duration, and blood loss (all, p > 0.05). Single or multiple uncontrolled bile ducts were intraoperatively detected and repaired in 62.1% of ALT vs 8.3% of non-ALT patients (p < 0.001). This resulted in a lower rate of postoperative bile leaks in ALT (1.9%) vs non-ALT patients (10.8%; p = 0.008). Independent risk factors for postoperative bile leaks included extended hepatectomy (p = 0.031), caudate resection (p = 0.02), and not performing ALT (p = 0.002) (odds ratio = 3.8; 95% CI, 1.3-11.8; odds ratio = 4.0; 95% CI, 1.1-14.3; and odds ratio = 11.8; 95% CI, 2.4-58.8, respectively).

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Preoperative cachexia

Mason MC, et al. Preoperative cancer cachexia and short-term outcomes following surgery. J Surg Res. 2016 Oct; 205(2):398-406.

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Results: Of 253 patients, 16.6% had preoperative cachexia, and 51.8% developed ≥ 1 postoperative complications. Complications were more common in cachectic patients (64.3% versus 49.3%, P = 0.07). This association varied by BMI category, and interaction analysis was significant for those with normal or underweight BMI (BMI < 25, P = 0.03). After multivariate modeling, in patients with normal or underweight BMI, preoperative cachexia was associated with higher odds of postoperative complications (odds ratios, 5.08 [95% confidence intervals, 1.18-21.88]; P = 0.029). Additional predictors of complications included major surgery (3.19 [1.24-8.21], P = 0.01), ostomy (4.43 [1.68-11.72], P = 0.003), and poor baseline performance status (2.31 [1.05-5.08], P = 0.03).

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Quick review: Receptors effecting the bladder

A discussion this week involved a review of receptors effecting the bladder.

Reference: University of Washington. Urination. No date. Retrieved from, 25 January 2019.

Summary: The image below illustrates the innervation of the different bladder muscles. It was presented for the benefit of the residents.

receptors and bladder