Diverting ileostomy in colorectal surgery: when is it necessary?

“The role of fecal diversion using a loop ileostomy in patients undergoing rectal resection and anastomosis is controversial. There has been conflicting evidence on the perceived benefit vs. the morbidity of a defunctioning stoma. This is a review of the relevant surgical literature evaluating the risks, benefits, and costs of constructing a diverting ileostomy in current colorectal surgical practice”

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The Landmark Series: Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

“Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from pancreatic islet cells that remain relatively rare but are increasing in incidence worldwide. While significant advances have been made in recent years with regard to systemic therapies for patients with advanced disease, surgical resection remains the standard of care for most patients with localized tumors. Although formal pancreatectomy with regional lymphadenectomy is the standard approach for most PNETs, pancreas-preserving approaches without formal lymphadenectomy are acceptable for smaller tumors at low risk for lymph node metastases.”

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Article of interest: Outcome of aggressive surveillance colonoscopy in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm.

Champagne BJ, et al. Outcome of aggressive surveillance colonoscopy in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. J Vasc Surg. 2004 Apr;39(4):792-6.

Purpose: Emergent repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) is associated with high perioperative morbidity and mortality. One of the significant complications of this surgery is bowel ischemia. Reports detail mortality as high as 80% when this condition is realized. The objective of this project was to determine both the incidence and the effect of mandatory postoperative colonoscopy on outcome of colon ischemia after rAAA.

Methods: From July 1995 to September 2002 all patients with an rAAA who underwent emergent aortic reconstruction were included in this review. All colonoscopies were performed within 48 hours, ischemia was graded consistently, and treatment was initiated per protocol based on grade of ischemia. Patients with grades I and II ischemia were followed up with medical management and repeat colonoscopy. All patients with grade III ischemia underwent bowel resection. Preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative variables were collected to assess possible independent risk factors for and predictors of bowel ischemia.

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Article of interest: Tracheoesophageal Voice Prosthesis Use and Maintenance in Laryngectomees.

Brook I, Goodman JF. Tracheoesophageal Voice Prosthesis Use and Maintenance in Laryngectomees. Int Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Oct;24(4):e535-e538.

Abstract: Tracheoesophageal speech is the most common voicing method used by laryngectomees. This method requires the installation of tracheoesophageal prosthesis (TEP), which requires continuous maintenance to achieve optimal speaking abilities and prevent fluid leakage from the esophagus to the trachea. The present manuscript describes the available types of TEPs, the procedures used to maintain them, the causes for their failure due to fluid leakage, and the methods used for their prevention. Knowledge and understanding of these issues can assist the otolaryngologist in caring for laryngectomees who use tracheoesophageal speech.

Article of interest: Comparison of three methods of liver retraction in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass

Goel R, et al. Randomized controlled trial comparing three methods of liver retraction in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Surg Endosc. 2013 Feb;27(2):679-84.

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Background: This study aimed to evaluate differences between three methods of liver retraction during laparoscopic Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (LRYGB) and to compare novel liver retraction techniques with the traditional mechanical liver retractor in a randomized controlled trial.

Methods: In this study, 60 obese patients (26 males and 34 females) who underwent LRYGB between January and July 2010 were randomized to one of three groups (20 in each): group 1 (Nathanson liver retractor), group 2 (liver suspension tape), and group 3 (V-shaped liver suspension technique [V-LIST]). Data regarding demographics (age, sex, body mass index); liver function test (LFT) just before surgery; postoperative results immediately, then 18 h, 1 week, and 1 month after surgery; operative data, and visual analog scale (VAS) for pain on postoperative days (PODs) 1 and 2 were calculated and analyzed.

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D-dimer testing to determine the duration of anticoagulation therapy

Palareti G, Cosmi B, Legnani C, et al.; DULCIS Investigators. D-dimer to guide the duration of anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism: a management study. Blood. 2014 Jul 10;124(2):196-203.

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The optimal duration of anticoagulation in patients with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is uncertain. We investigated whether persistently negative D-dimers in patients with vein recanalization or stable thrombotic burden can identify subjects at low recurrence risk. Outpatients with a first VTE (unprovoked or associated with weak risk factors) were eligible after at least 3 months (12 in those with residual thrombosis) of anticoagulation. They received serial D-dimer measurements using commercial assays with predefined age/sex-specific cutoffs and were followed for up to 2 years. Of 1010 patients, anticoagulation was stopped in 528 (52.3%) with persistently negative D-dimer who subsequently experienced 25 recurrences (3.0% pt-y; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0-4.4%). Of the remaining 482 patients, 373 resumed anticoagulation and 109 refused it. Recurrent VTE developed in 15 patients (8.8% pt-y; 95% CI, 5.0-14.1) of the latter group and in 4 of the former (0.7% pt-y; 95% CI, 0.2-1.7; hazard ratio = 2.92; 95% CI, 1.87-9.72; P = .0006). Major bleeding occurred in 14 patients (2.3% pt-y; 95% CI, 1.3-3.9) who resumed anticoagulation. Serial D-dimer measurement is suitable in clinical practice for the identification of VTE patients in whom anticoagulation can be safely discontinued. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00954395.

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A randomised trial of post-discharge enteral feeding following surgical resection of an upper gastrointestinal malignancy

Froghi F, et al. A randomised trial of post-discharge enteral feeding following surgical resection of an upper gastrointestinal malignancy. Clin Nutr. 2017 Dec;36(6):1516-1519.

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RESULTS: 44 patients (M:F, 29:15) were randomised, 23 received jejunal supplements. There were no differences between the groups. Percentage of calculated energy requirement received was greater in the supplemented group at weeks 3 and 6 (p < 0.0001). Oral energy intake was not different between the groups at any time period. After hospital discharge, there were no differences in MFI-20, EQ5D and QLQ-OES18 scores at any time point. From hospital discharge fatigue improved and plateaued at 6 weeks (p < 0.05 for both groups), independence at 12 weeks (p < 0.05 for both groups). No improvement was seen in quality of life until 24 weeks in the active group alone (p < 0.02) and not at all in the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: Addition of jejunal feeding is effective in providing patients with an adequate energy intake. Increased energy intake however, produced no obvious improvement in measures of fatigue, quality of life or health economics.