Diverting Ostomy: For Whom, When, What, Where, and Why

“Fecal diversion is an important tool in the surgical armamentarium. There is much controversy regarding which clinical scenarios warrant diversion. Some of the most common applications for the use of a diverting stoma include construction of diverting ileostomy or colostomy, ostomy for low colorectal/coloanal anastomosis, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticular disease, and obstructing colorectal cancer with the conclusion that diverting loop ileostomy is preferred to loop colostomy” (Plasencia)

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The Landmark Series: Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

“Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) comprise a heterogeneous group of neoplasms arising from pancreatic islet cells that remain relatively rare but are increasing in incidence worldwide. While significant advances have been made in recent years with regard to systemic therapies for patients with advanced disease, surgical resection remains the standard of care for most patients with localized tumors. Although formal pancreatectomy with regional lymphadenectomy is the standard approach for most PNETs, pancreas-preserving approaches without formal lymphadenectomy are acceptable for smaller tumors at low risk for lymph node metastases.”

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Incidence of biliary stricture formation after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for benign and malignant periampullary disease.

“Between January 1995 and April 2003, 1595 patients underwent PD for periampullary disease (392 benign, 1203 malignant). A retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected database was performed to determine the incidence of biliary stricture after PD.”

Results: “Forty-two of the 1595 patients (2.6%) who underwent PD developed postoperative jaundice secondary to a stricture of the biliary-enteric anastomosis. There was no difference in the incidence of biliary strictures after resection for benign (n = 10, 2.6%) or malignant disease (n = 32, 2.6%). The median time to stricture formation resulting in jaundice was 13 months (range, 1–106 months) and was similar for patients with benign and malignant disease. Preoperative jaundice did not protect against biliary stricture formation. By univariate analysis, biliary strictures were associated with preoperative percutaneous biliary drainage (odds ratio [OR] = 2.11, P = 0.02) and postoperative biliary stenting (OR = 2.11, P = 0.013). Postoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients with malignant disease was not associated with stricture formation. All strictures were initially managed with percutaneous biliary balloon dilatation and stenting, and only 2 patients required redo hepaticojejunostomy. Recurrent neoplastic disease was discovered in only 3 of the 32 patients (9%) with malignant disease. All 3 of these patients had cholangiocarcinoma as their initial diagnosis.”

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Article of Interest: Preoperative versus postoperative radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma of the limbs: a randomised trial.

O’Sullivan B, Davis AM, Turcotte R, et al. Preoperative versus postoperative radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma of the limbs: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29;359(9325):2235-41. Full-text for Emory users.

Findings: Median follow-up was 3·3 years (range 0·27–5·6). Four patients, all in the preoperative group, did not undergo protocol surgery and were not evaluable for the primary outcome. Of those patients who were eligible and evaluable, wound complications were recorded in 31 (35%) of 88 in the preoperative group and 16 (17%) of 94 in the postoperative group (difference 18% [95% CI 5–30], p=0·01). Tumour size and anatomical site were also significant risk factors in multivariate analysis. Overall survival was slightly better in patients who had preoperative radiotherapy than in those who had postoperative treatment (p=0·0481).

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Article of interest: Evolving trends in surgical management of breast cancer: an analysis of 30 years of practice changing papers

Keelan S, Flanagan M, Hill ADK. Evolving Trends in Surgical Management of Breast Cancer: An Analysis of 30 Years of Practice Changing Papers. Front Oncol. 2021 Aug 4;11:622621. Free full-text.

Figure 1. A timeline of evolving trends in surgical management of breast cancer. OS, overall survival; DFS, disease free survival; BCS, beast conserving surgery; RT, radiotherapy; QOL, quality of life; SLNB, sentinel lymph node biopsy; ALND, axillary lymph node dissection. (p. 3)
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Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases

Kleive D, et al. Simultaneous Resection of Primary Colorectal Cancer and Synchronous Liver Metastases: Contemporary Practice, Evidence and Knowledge Gaps. Oncol Ther. 2021 Jun;9(1):111-120. Free full-text.

Key Summary Points

  • High-level evidence in simultaneous resection of colorectal cancer and colorectal liver metastasis remains scarce.
  • Simultaneous resections may be considered in patients with good performance status and limited liver tumour burden.
  • Simultaneous resections should be avoided when requiring major liver resection and major colorectal resection.
  • Treatment strategies should be made by a multidisciplinary team.
  • Simultaneous resections should be performed as part of a clinical trial.
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