PREOPERATIVE URETERAL STENT PLACEMENT IN THE IDENTIFICATION OF INTRAOPERATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF IATROGENIC URETERAL INJURY?

“The use of prophylactic ureteral stents remains controversial and could help in the intraoperative identification of ureteral injury.”

Methods:
Patients undergoing elective abdominal colorectal surgery and preoperative ureteral stent placement at three enterprise-wide tertiary referral hospitals between 2015 and 2021 were retrospectively identified through their billing records. The main study endpoint was ureteral injury identified within 30 days postoperatively. The decision to place ureteral stents was at the discretion of the treating surgeon. A number of demographic, disease-related, and treatment-related variables were examined for possible association with ureteral stent placement. We compared the incidence of ureteral injury and timing of the identification according to use of ureteral stents. Bivariate associations were examined using Kruskal-Wallis tests for continuous variables and Chi-square tests for categorical variables.

Results:
Out of 7925 patients undergoing elective colorectal surgery, 1118 (16.3%) underwent preoperative ureteral stent placement. Use of preoperative ureteral stents was significantly associated with a higher ASA class (53% vs 44% ASA3, p= <0.001), wound classification (28% vs 18% Type III; 15.6% vs 4.8% Type IV, p <0.001), and longer duration of surgery (5.6 vs 3.7 hours, p <0.001). With respect to postoperative complications, use of ureteral stents was associated with significantly increased risk of iatrogenic ureteral injury (1.3% vs 0.2%, p= <0.001), acute kidney injury (14% vs 9%, p<0.001), and UTI (7% vs 3%, p<0.001). Ureteral injury was identified in 32 patients (0.4%). Of these, 15 did not have a stent, and 17 had preoperative stent placement. The ureteral injury was identified intraoperatively in 19/32 (59%) patients. However, use of ureteral stents was not associated with increased intraoperative identification (53% vs 47%, p= 0.43).

Heimberger, Mark, et al. “925: CAN PREOPERATIVE URETERAL STENT PLACEMENT HELP IN THE INTRAOPERATIVE IDENTIFICATION OF IATROGENIC URETERAL INJURY?.” Gastroenterology 162.7 (2022): S-1348. Free Full Text

Iatrogenic urologic injuries 

Ferrara M, Kann BR. Urological injuries during colorectal surgery. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2019 May;32(3):196-203.

“A recent retrospective population-based study of patients in the United States undergoing colorectal surgery found the overall incidence of ureteral injury to be 0.28%. The incidence was found to be significantly higher in patients with stage 3 or 4 cancer, malnutrition, steroid use, and in operations done at teaching hospitals. Rectal cancer cases were found to have the highest rates of ureteral injuries (7.1/1,000), followed by Crohn’s disease and diverticular disease (2.9/1,000 each). In this review, laparoscopic surgery was associated with a lower incidence of ureteral injuries when compared with open (1.1 vs. 2.8/1,000, p  < 0.001). Of the specific operations reviewed, abdominoperineal resection (APR) was found to have the highest rate of ureteral injury at 7.1/1,000 cases.” (Ferrara, 2019, p. 196)

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Surgical treatment and risk of recurrence of horseshoe anorectal abscess

Gaertner WB, et al. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Anorectal Abscess, Fistula-in-Ano, and Rectovaginal Fistula. Dis Colon Rectum. 2022 Aug 1;65(8):964-985. Full-text for Emory users.

Patients with acute anorectal abscess should be treated promptly with incision and drainage. Grade of recommendation: strong recommendation based on low-quality evidence, 1C.

“Abscesses that cross the midline (ie, horseshoe) can be challenging to manage. These abscesses most often involve the deep postanal space and extend laterally into the ischiorectal spaces. [40,71] Under these circumstances, primary lay-open fistulotomy should typically be avoided because these fistulas tend to be transsphincteric. The Hanley procedure, a technique that drains the deep postanal space and uses counter incisions to address the ischiorectal spaces, is effective in the setting of a horseshoe abscess, [71] although it may negatively impact anal sphincter function. [40,71] A modified Hanley technique using a posterior midline partial sphincterotomy to unroof the postanal space plus seton placement has a high rate of abscess resolution and has been reported to better preserve anorectal function compared to other operative interventions. [40,72,73]” (p. 969)

“After drainage, abscesses may recur in up to 44% of patients, most often within 1 year of initial treatment. [2,10,70] Inadequate drainage, the presence of loculations or a horseshoe-type abscess, and not performing a primary fistulotomy are risk factors for recurrent abscess (primary fistulotomy is further addressed in recommendation no. 4). [10,71,72]” (p. 969)

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Intraoperative perfusion assessment in mesenteric ischemia

Bryski MG, et al. Techniques for intraoperative evaluation of bowel viability in mesenteric ischemia: A review. Am J Surg. 2020 Aug;220(2):309-315. Full-text for Emory users.

“Comparison studies in animal models and clinical experience featuring fluorescein flowmetry have consistently demonstrated the superiority of dye-based perfusion monitoring for intraoperative bowel assessment as compared to standard clinical criteria, DUS, and pulse oximetry/PPG. (45,46,47,53,54) However, these results are not universal, with some large animal models demonstrating no difference between fluorescein, DUS, and PPG, and an additional study showing that DUS actually outperforms fluorescein for intraoperative bowel assessment. (13,18,43)” (p. 312)

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Colorectal surgery in cirrhotic patients

Paolino J, Steinhagen RM. Colorectal surgery in cirrhotic patients. ScientificWorldJournal. 2014 Jan 15;2014:239293. Free full-text.

Patients with cirrhosis have a greater risk of morbidity and mortality following colorectal surgery. Therefore, preoperative medical optimization and risk assessment using criteria such as the MELD score are vital in preventing complications. Some risk factors include age, urgency of surgery, and ASA score. Postoperative morbidity and mortality are related to portal hypertension, ascites, infection, and anastomotic and stomal complications. This review highlights the assessment of risk and perioperative management of cirrhotic patients undergoing colorectal surgery.

Article of interest: Clinical practice guideline for the management of anorectal abscess, fistula-in-ano, and rectovaginal fistula

Vogel JD, et al. Clinical Practice Guideline for the Management of Anorectal Abscess, Fistula-in-Ano, and Rectovaginal Fistula. Dis Colon Rectum. 2016 Dec;59(12):1117-1133. Full-text for Emory users.

Recommendations: Treatment of Rectovaginal Fistulas (p. 1123-1125)

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Simultaneous resection of primary colorectal cancer and synchronous liver metastases

Kleive D, et al. Simultaneous Resection of Primary Colorectal Cancer and Synchronous Liver Metastases: Contemporary Practice, Evidence and Knowledge Gaps. Oncol Ther. 2021 Jun;9(1):111-120. Free full-text.

Key Summary Points

  • High-level evidence in simultaneous resection of colorectal cancer and colorectal liver metastasis remains scarce.
  • Simultaneous resections may be considered in patients with good performance status and limited liver tumour burden.
  • Simultaneous resections should be avoided when requiring major liver resection and major colorectal resection.
  • Treatment strategies should be made by a multidisciplinary team.
  • Simultaneous resections should be performed as part of a clinical trial.
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