Thanks to LeslieAnn S. Kao, MD (General Surgery PGY-4) for suggesting this topic.
Somagutta MR, et al. Euglycemic Diabetic Ketoacidosis and Sodium-Glucose Cotransporter-2 Inhibitors: A Focused Review of Pathophysiology, Risk Factors, and Triggers. Cureus. 2021 Mar 3;13(3):e13665.
The underlying mechanism is mainly enhanced lipolysis and ketone body reabsorption. SGLT2i also stimulates pancreatic alpha cells and inhibits beta cells, causing an imbalance in glucagon/insulin levels, further contributing to lipolysis and ketogenesis. Most patients were diagnosed with blood glucose less than 200 mg/dL, blood pH <7.3, increased anion gap, increased blood, or urine ketones. Perioperative fasting, pancreatic etiology, low carbohydrate or ketogenic diet, obesity, and malignancy are identified precipitants in this review. As normoglycemia can conceal the underlying acidosis, physicians should be cognizant of the EDKA diagnosis and initiate prompt treatment. Patient education on risk factors and triggers is recommended to avoid future events.Continue reading