Khan S, et al. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Prevention Strategies for Venous Thromboembolism after Cytoreductive Surgery and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy. Ann Surg Oncol. 2019 Jul;26(7):2276-2284.
Full-text for Emory users.
“A policy change was made in February 2010 to discharge all patients post-CRS/HIPEC with 14 days of additional pharmacothromboprophylaxis, which consisted of low-molecular-weight heparin in 327 of 447 (73%) cases (Supplemental Figure). The 60-day VTE rate decreased from 10.2 to 4.9% after this policy was instituted (p = 0.10, Fig. 2).”
“This policy is in accordance with established guidelines indicating the need for a total of 4 weeks of pharmacothromboprophylaxis in high-risk patients after abdominal or pelvic surgery for cancer. [2,21] Given that patients have an average length of stay of nearly 2 weeks, discharging them on 14 days of pharmacothromboprophylaxis fulfills this duration.”
One discussion this week focused on the perioperative management of NOACs.
Reference: DynaMed Plus [Internet]. Ipswich (MA): EBSCO Information Services. 1995 -. Record No. 227537, Periprocedural management of patients on long-term anticoagulation; [updated 2018 Oct 10, cited 2018 Oct 12; [about 26 screens]. Emory login required.
Summary: The information below is from DynaMed Plus (2018). To view full information on the topic, click on the citation above.
Vitamin K antagonists in patients undergoing major surgery or procedures
- Consider continuing vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy in patients who require minor dental procedures, minor dermatological procedures, or cataract surgery.
- In those having a minor dental procedure, consider coadministering an oral hemostatic agent or stopping the VKA 2 to 3 days before the procedure.
- In those undergoing implantation of a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter device, consider continuing VKA therapy.
- In those having a major surgery or procedure, stop VKA therapy 5 days before surgery.
- Resume VKA therapy 12-24 hours after surgery when there is adequate hemostasis.
Bridging therapy in patients undergoing major surgery or procedures
- If at low risk for thrombosis, consider omitting bridging therapy.
- If at moderate risk for thrombosis, assess individual patient- and surgery-related factors when considering bridging therapy.
- If at high risk for thrombosis consider bridging therapy with unfractionated heparin (UFH) or low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH).
- For those receiving bridging therapy with UFH, stop UFH 4-6 hours before surgery.
- For those receiving bridging therapy with therapeutic-dose LMWH, stop LMWH 24 hours before surgery.
- For those receiving bridging therapy with UFH or therapeutic-dose LMWH and undergoing non-high-bleeding-risk surgery, consider resuming heparin 24 hours after surgery.
- For those receiving bridging therapy with UFH or therapeutic-dose LMWH and undergoing high-bleeding-risk surgery, consider resuming heparin 48-72 hours after surgery.
A discussion during a previous conference included the perioperative management of patients with atrial fibrillation receiving a direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC).
Reference: Douketis JD, et al. Perioperative management of patients with atrial fibrillation receiving a direct oral anticoagulant. JAMA Internal Medicine. 2019 Aug 5; doi:10/1001/jamainternmed.2019.2431
Summary: Each year, 1 in 6 patients with AF, or an estimated 6 million patients worldwide, will require perioperative anticoagulant management. When DOAC regimens became available for clinical use in AF, starting in 2010, no studies had been conducted to inform the timing of perioperative DOAC therapy interruption and resumption, whether heparin bridging should be given, and whether preoperative coagulation function testing was needed. Uncertainty about the perioperative management of DOACs may be associated with unsubstantiated practices and increased harm to patients.