Lindenmann J, Matzi V, Neuboeck N, et al. Management of esophageal perforation in 120 consecutive patients: clinical impact of a structured treatment algorithm. J Gastrointest Surg. 2013 Jun;17(6):1036-43.
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Results: Iatrogenic perforation was the most frequent cause of esophageal perforation (58.3 %); Boerhaave’s syndrome was detected in 15 cases (6.8 %). Surgery was performed in 66 patients (55 %), 17 (14 %) patients received conservative treatment and 37 (31 %) patients underwent endoscopic stenting after tumorous perforation. Statistically significant impact on mean survival had Boerhaave’s syndrome (p = 0.005), initial sepsis (p = 0.002), pleural effusion/empyema (p = 0.001), mediastinitis (p = 0.003), peritonitis (p = 0.001), and redo-surgery (p = 0.000). Overall mortality rate was 11.7 %, in the esophagectomy group 17 % and in the patients with Boerhaave’s syndrome 33.3 %.