Messias BA, et al. Serum C-reactive protein is a useful marker to exclude anastomotic leakage after colorectal surgery. Sci Rep. 2020 Feb 3;10(1):1687.
Abstract: Anastomotic leakage is a complication of colorectal surgery. C-reactive protein (CRP) is an acute-phase marker that can indicate surgical complications. We determined whether serum CRP levels in patients who had undergone colorectal surgery can be used to exclude the presence of anastomotic leakage and allow safe early discharge. We included 90 patients who underwent colorectal surgery with primary anastomosis. Serum CRP levels were measured retrospectively on postoperative days (PODs) 1 – 7. Patients with anastomotic leakage (n = 11) were compared to those without leakage (n = 79). We statistically analysed data and plotted receiver operating characteristic curves. The incidence of anastomotic leakage was 12.2%. Diagnoses were made on PODs 3 – 24. The overall mortality rate was 3.3% (18.2% in the leakage group, 1.3% in the non-leakage group; P < 0.045). CRP levels were most accurate on POD 4, with a cutoff level of 180 mg/L, showing an area under the curve of 0.821 and a negative predictive value of 97.2%. Lower CRP levels after POD 2 and levels <180 mg/L on POD 4 may indicate the absence of anastomotic leakage and may allow safe discharge of patients who had undergone colorectal surgery with primary anastomosis.
Davis BR, Lee-Kong SA, Migaly J, Feingold DL, Steele SR. The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Hemorrhoids. Dis Colon Rectum. 2018 Mar;61(3):284-292.
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“Symptoms related to hemorrhoids are very common in the Western hemisphere and other industrialized societies. Although published estimates of prevalence are varied,1,2 it represents one of the most common medical and surgical disease processes encountered in the United States, resulting in >2.2-million outpatient evaluations per year.3 A large number of diverse symptoms may be, correctly or incorrectly, attributed to hemorrhoids by both patients and referring physicians. As a result, it is important to identify symptomatic hemorrhoids as the underlying source of the anorectal symptom and to have a clear understanding of the evaluation and management of this disease process.These guidelines address both diagnostic and therapeutic modalities in the management of hemorrhoidal disease.”
Sherman KL, Wexner SD. Considerations in Stoma Reversal. Clin Colon Rectal Surg. 2017 Jul;30(3):172-177.
Temporary stomas are frequently used in the management of diverticulitis, colorectal cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. These temporary stomas are used to try to mitigate septic complications from anastomotic leaks and to avoid the need for reoperation. Once acute medical conditions have improved and after the anastomosis has been proven to be healed, stomas can be reversed. Contrast enemas, digital rectal examination, and endoscopic evaluation are used to evaluate the anastomosis prior to reversal. Stoma reversal is associated with complications including anastomotic leak, postoperative ileus, bowel obstruction, enterocutaneous fistula, and, most commonly, surgical site infection. Furthermore, many stomas, which were intended to be temporary, may not be reversed due to postoperative complications, adjuvant therapy, or prohibitive comorbidities.