Dageforde LA, Lillemoe KD. (2020). Management of Acute Cholangitis. In: Cameron JL, Cameron AM (Eds), Current Surgical Therapy, 13th ed. Elsevier: Philadelphia.

“Recent literature advocates for primary closure of the common bile duct after elective CBDE because of complications from T-tube placement. But in patients with cholangitis, placement of a T-tube is necessary for biliary decompression and allows easy access for future cholangiogram if the obstruction does not resolve. T-tube drainage has been associated with bile leak and requires externalization of the tube for several days until postoperative cholangiography demonstrates resolution of obstruction. Primary closure can lead to stricture and bile leak and result in no direct access to the biliary tree for future investigations.”

Fig. 2. Insertion of a T-tube in the common bile duct with subsequent closure using absorbable monofilament suture (4-0 or 5-0). The T-tube is prepared in one of the ways shown. From: Zollinger RM, Jr, Zollinger RM. Atlas of Surgical Operations. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 1993.

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