SAGES still recommends that practicing general surgeons learn how to do IOC (though once a surgeon is past their learning curve, it is not necessarily routinely recommended that it be done ‘routinely’).
Hope WW, et al. SAGES clinical spotlight review: intraoperative cholangiography. Surg Endosc. 2017 May;31(5): 2007-2016. Full-text for Emory users.
“The following clinical spotlight review regarding the intraoperative cholangiogram is intended for physicians who manage and treat gallbladder/biliary pathology and perform laparoscopic cholecystectomy. It is meant to critically review the technique of intraoperative cholangiography, alternatives for intraoperative biliary imaging, and the available evidence supporting their safety and efficacy.”
Duconseil P, Turrini O, Ewald J, et al. Biliary complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy: skinny bile ducts are surgeons’ enemies. World J Surg. 2014 Nov;38(11):2946-51.
Full-text for Emory users.
Results: Thirty patients experienced a BC: 13 BLs (3.3 %) and 17 BSs (4.3 %). A thin bile duct (<5 mm), measured during surgery, was the only predisposing factor for developing a BL or a BS. The management of the BLs consisted of surveillance in six patients (46 %), percutaneous drainage of bilioma in four patients (31 %), and reintervention in three patients (23 %). No patient with a BS had surgery as the frontline treatment: the initial management consisted of an endoscopic procedure, a percutaneous procedure, or medical treatment. Four patients (23.5 %) underwent surgical treatment after failure of nonsurgical procedures.
Conclusions: The only identified predictive factor of BC, either a BS or a BL, was a thin bile duct. Although the noninvasive technique was the treatment of choice initially, reintervention was required in almost 25 % of the cases.