Knechtle SJ, Galloway JR. (2017) Chapter 85. Portal hypertensive bleeding: The place of portosystemic shunting. Ed.: Jarnagin WR, In Blumgart’s Surgery of the Liver, Biliary Tract and Pancreas, 2-Volume Set (6th ed.), Elsevier, pgs. 1218-1230.e3.Continue reading
Tag Archives: Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage
Management of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
Barkun AN, Almadi M, Kuipers EJ, et al. Management of Nonvariceal Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding: Guideline Recommendations From the International Consensus Group. Ann Intern Med. 2019 Dec 3;171(11):805-822.
Full-text for Emory users.
Preendoscopic management: The group suggests using a Glasgow Blatchford score of 1 or less to identify patients at very low risk for rebleeding, who may not require hospitalization. In patients without cardiovascular disease, the suggested hemoglobin threshold for blood transfusion is less than 80 g/L, with a higher threshold for those with cardiovascular disease.
Endoscopic management: The group suggests that patients with acute UGIB undergo endoscopy within 24 hours of presentation. Thermocoagulation and sclerosant injection are recommended, and clips are suggested, for endoscopic therapy in patients with high-risk stigmata. Use of TC-325 (hemostatic powder) was suggested as temporizing therapy, but not as sole treatment, in patients with actively bleeding ulcers.
Upper GI bleeding: CTA prior to flouroscopic angiography?
A discussion this week included a diagnostic CTA prior to flourscopic angiography.
Reference: Wells ML, et al. CT for evaluation of acute gastrointestinal bleeding. RadioGraphics. 2018 Jul-Aug;38(4):1089-1107. doi:10.1148/rg.2018170138
Summary: “Teaching point: CT angiography is gaining popularity for use in emergent evaluations of acute GI bleeding. It has potential for use in the first-line evaluation of acute LGIB and the evaluation of UGIB after failed or nondiagnostic endoscopy.”
Comparing imaging modalities for detecting GI bleeding
One discussion this week included the effectiveness of CTA, angiography, and tagged RBC scan.
Reference: Radiologic Diagnosis and Intervention for Gastrointestinal Bleeding (p.105)
Postpancreatectomy hemorrhages: risk factors and outcomes
One discussion this week involved etiologies of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage.
Reference: Yekebas EF, et al. Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage: diagnosis and treatment: an analysis in 1669 consecutive pancreatic resections. Annals of Surgery. 2007 Aug;246(2):269-280. doi:10.1097/01.sla.0000262953.77735.db
Summary: With the purpose of creating algorithms for managing postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), Yekebas et al (2007) restrospectively analyzed more than 1669 pancreatic resections conducted between 1992 and 2006. They concluded that the prognosis of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is primarily dependent on the presence of “preceding pancreatic fistula” (p.269).