Christopherson R, Beattie C, Frank SM, Norris EJ, Meinert CL, Gottlieb SO, Yates H, Rock P, Parker SD, Perler BA, et al. Perioperative morbidity in patients randomized to epidural or general anesthesia for lower extremity vascular surgery. Perioperative Ischemia Randomized Anesthesia Trial Study Group. Anesthesiology. 1993 Sep;79(3):422-34.
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Background: Perioperative morbidity may be modifiable in high risk patients by the anesthesiologist’s choice of either regional or general anesthesia. This clinical trial compared outcomes between epidural (EA) and general (GA) anesthesia/analgesia regimens in a group of patients at high risk for cardiac and other morbidity who were undergoing similarly stressful surgical procedures.
Gulur P, et al. Retrospective analysis of the incidence of epidural haematoma in patients with epidural catheters and abnormal coagulation parameters. Br J Anaesth. 015;114(5): 808–811.
“Results: During the study period, 11 600 epidural catheters were placed. In the setting of abnormal coagulation parameters, 278 (2.4%) epidural catheters were placed and 351 (3%) were removed. Two epidural haematomas occurred; both patients had epidural catheters and spinal drains placed for vascular procedures with abnormal coagulation parameters after operatation. The haematomas occurred after removal of the catheters. Based on our study, the incidence of epidural haematoma in patients with abnormal coagulation parameters is 1 in 315 patients, with the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval at 87 and the upper limit at 2597.”
See also: Lee LO, Bateman BT, Kheterpal S, et al. Risk of Epidural Hematoma after Neuraxial Techniques in Thrombocytopenic Parturients: A Report from the Multicenter Perioperative Outcomes Group. Anesthesiology. 2017;126(6):1053–1063.