Intraoperative perfusion assessment in mesenteric ischemia

Bryski MG, et al. Techniques for intraoperative evaluation of bowel viability in mesenteric ischemia: A review. Am J Surg. 2020 Aug;220(2):309-315. Full-text for Emory users.

“Comparison studies in animal models and clinical experience featuring fluorescein flowmetry have consistently demonstrated the superiority of dye-based perfusion monitoring for intraoperative bowel assessment as compared to standard clinical criteria, DUS, and pulse oximetry/PPG. (45,46,47,53,54) However, these results are not universal, with some large animal models demonstrating no difference between fluorescein, DUS, and PPG, and an additional study showing that DUS actually outperforms fluorescein for intraoperative bowel assessment. (13,18,43)” (p. 312)

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Article of interest: Endoscopy in the early postoperative setting after primary gastrointestinal anastomosis

Amr MA, et al. Endoscopy in the early postoperative setting after primary gastrointestinal anastomosis. J Gastrointest Surg. 2014 Nov;18(11):1911-6. Full-text for Emory users.

Methods: Review of patients from 2002 to 2013 who underwent flexible endoscopy within 6 weeks of creation of gastrointestinal anastomosis. Exclusion criteria included intraoperative endoscopy, anastomotic perforation prior to endoscopy, and endoscopy remote from the anastomotic site. Data are presented as median (interquartile range; IQR) or percentages as appropriate.

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Management of the difficult duodenal stump

Burch JM, Cox CL, Feliciano DV, Richardson RJ, Martin RR. Management of the difficult duodenal stump. Am J Surg. 1991 Dec;162(6):522-6.

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Abstract: Leakage from the duodenal stump has been the most feared complication of the Billroth II reconstruction following gastric resection. The purpose of our study was to evaluate four methods of duodenal stump closure in 200 patients. One hundred and forty-seven (74%) patients had duodenal ulcers; 28 (14%) had gastric ulcers; and 25 (13%) had a variety of other inflammatory conditions. The most common indication for operation was acute hemorrhage (51%), followed by perforation (24%), intractability (15%), and obstruction (10%). Conventional duodenal closures were performed in 160 (80%) patients, Nissen’s closure in 25 (13%), Bancroft’s closure in 6 (3%), and tube duodenostomy in 9 (5%). Duodenal leaks occurred in four (2.5%) patients with conventional closures and in three (33%) patients with tube duodenostomies. No leaks occurred in patients with Nissen’s or Bancroft’s closures. The hospital mortality rate for the series was 9.5%; however, no patient who developed a duodenal leak died. We conclude that Nissen’s and Bancroft’s closures were safe and effective, but that tube duodenostomy did not reliably prevent uncontrolled leakage.

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The utility of intraoperative perfusion assessment during resection of colorectal cancer

De Nardi P, et al. Intraoperative angiography with indocyanine green to assess anastomosis perfusion in patients undergoing laparoscopic colorectal resection: results of a multicenter randomized controlled trial. Surg Endosc. 2020 Jan;34(1):53-60.

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Results: After randomization, 12 patients were excluded. Accordingly, 240 patients were included in the analysis; 118 were in the study group, and 122 in the control group. ICG angiography showed insufficient perfusion of the colic stump, which led to extended bowel resection in 13 cases (11%). An anastomotic leak developed in 11 patients (9%) in the control group and in 6 patients (5%) in the study group (p = n.s.).

Conclusions: Intraoperative ICG fluorescent angiography can effectively assess vascularization of the colic stump and anastomosis in patients undergoing colorectal resection. This method led to further proximal bowel resection in 13 cases, however, there was no statistically significant reduction of anastomotic leak rate in the ICG arm.

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Article of interest: Management of the difficult duodenal stump in penetrating duodenal ulcer disease: a comparative analysis of duodenojejunostomy with “classical” stump closure (Nissen-Bsteh)

Vashist YK, et al. Management of the difficult duodenal stump in penetrating duodenal ulcer disease: a comparative analysis of duodenojejunostomy with “classical” stump closure (Nissen-Bsteh). Langenbecks Arch Surg. 2012 Dec;397(8):1243-9.

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Table 4. Multivariable Analysis for Perioperative Mortality and Leakage in All 124 Patients

Background: Duodenal stump insufficiency after surgery for penetrating gastroduodenal ulcer is associated with substantial mortality. “Classical” technique of closing a difficult duodenal stump (Nissen-Bsteh) has, up to now, not been compared with duodenojejunostomy (DJ) in larger patient sets. This also refers to the potential benefit of a gastric and biliary diversion under such conditions. The aim of the present study was to compare classical duodenal closure (CC) with DJ and to evaluate the impact of gastric and biliary diversion on postoperative outcome after surgery for penetrating, high-risk duodenal ulcer in a matched control study.

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The surgical management of purulent peritonitis from perforated diverticulitis

Oberkofler CE, et al. A multicenter randomized clinical trial of primary anastomosis or Hartmann’s procedure for perforated left colonic diverticulitis with purulent or fecal peritonitis. Ann Surg. 2012 Nov; 256(5):819-26; discussion 826-7.

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Results: Patient demographics were equally distributed in both groups (Hinchey III: 76% vs 75% and Hinchey IV: 24% vs 25%, for HP vs PA, respectively). The overall complication rate for both resection and stoma reversal operations was comparable (80% vs 84%, P = 0.813). Although the outcome after the initial colon resection did not show any significant differences (mortality 13% vs 9% and morbidity 67% vs 75% in HP vs PA), the stoma reversal rate after PA with diverting ileostomy was higher (90% vs 57%, P = 0.005) and serious complications (Grades IIIb-IV: 0% vs 20%, P = 0.046), operating time (73 minutes vs 183 minutes, P < 0.001), hospital stay (6 days vs 9 days, P = 0.016), and lower in-hospital costs (US $16,717 vs US $24,014) were significantly reduced in the PA group.

Conclusions: This is the first randomized clinical trial favoring PA with diverting ileostomy over HP in patients with perforated diverticulitis.


Thornell A, et al. Laparoscopic Lavage for Perforated Diverticulitis With Purulent Peritonitis: A Randomized Trial. Ann Intern Med. 2016 Feb 2;164(3):137-45.

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LL vs Hartmann

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Article of interest: Oncological Outcomes After Anastomotic Leakage After Surgery for Colon or Rectal Cancer: Increased Risk of Local Recurrence

Koedam TWA, et al.; COLOR COLOR II study group. Oncological Outcomes After Anastomotic Leakage After Surgery for Colon or Rectal Cancer: Increased Risk of Local Recurrence. Ann Surg. 2020 Mar 27. [Epub ahead of print]

Results: For colon cancer, anastomotic leakage was not associated with increased percentage of local recurrence or decreased disease-free-survival. For rectal cancer, an increase of local recurrences (13.3% vs 4.6%; hazard ratio 2.96; 95% confidence interval 1.38-6.34; P = 0.005) and a decrease of disease-free survival (53.6% vs 70.9%; hazard ratio 1.67; 95% confidence interval 1.16-2.41; P = 0.006) at 5-year follow-up were found in patients with anastomotic leakage.

Conclusion: Short-term morbidity, mortality, and long-term oncological outcomes are negatively influenced by the occurrence of anastomotic leakage after rectal cancer surgery. For colon cancer, no significant effect was observed; however, due to low power, no conclusions on the influence of anastomotic leakage on outcomes after colon surgery could be reached. Clinical awareness of increased risk of local recurrence after anastomotic leakage throughout the follow-up is mandatory.