Pancreaticoduodenectomy with and without routine intraperitoneal drainage

Van Buren G 2nd, Bloomston M, Hughes SJ, et al. A randomized prospective multicenter trial of pancreaticoduodenectomy with and without routine intraperitoneal drainage. Ann Surg. 2014 Apr;259(4):605-12.

Full-text for Emory users.

Results: There were no differences between drain and no-drain cohorts in demographics, comorbidities, pathology, pancreatic duct size, pancreas texture, baseline quality of life, or operative technique. PD without intraperitoneal drainage was associated with an increase in the number of complications per patient [1 (0-2) vs 2 (1-4), P = 0.029]; an increase in the number of patients who had at least 1 ≥grade 2 complication [35 (52%) vs 47 (68%), P = 0.047]; and a higher average complication severity [2 (0-2) vs 2 (1-3), P = 0.027]. PD without intraperitoneal drainage was associated with a higher incidence of gastroparesis, intra-abdominal fluid collection, intra-abdominal abscess (10% vs 25%, P = 0.027), severe (≥grade 2) diarrhea, need for a postoperative percutaneous drain, and a prolonged length of stay. The Data Safety Monitoring Board stopped the study early because of an increase in mortality from 3% to 12% in the patients undergoing PD without intraperitoneal drainage.

Conclusions: This study provides level 1 data, suggesting that elimination of intraperitoneal drainage in all cases of PD increases the frequency and severity of complications.

See also: Van Buren G 2nd, Fisher WE. Pancreaticoduodenectomy Without Drains: Interpretation of the Evidence. Ann Surg. 2016 Feb;263(2):e20-1.

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Postoperative pancreatic fistula

This week’s discussion included risk scoring and management of postoperative pancreatic fistula.


Nahm CB, Connor SJ, Samra JS, Mittal A. Postoperative pancreatic fistula: a
review of traditional and emerging concepts. Clin Exp Gastroenterol. 2018 Mar
15;11:105-118.

Prediction: “Biochemical markers of POP after pancreatic resection are evident from the first postoperative day. These include serum amylase and lipase, and urinary trypsinogen-2. In an observational study of 61 patients undergoing pancreatic resection, the presence of POP on the first postoperative day as determined by these markers was found to be a strong predictor of the development of POPF (OR 17.81, 95% CI 2.17–145.9) [128]

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Early vs late drain removal after pancreatectomy

One discussion this week included early vs late drain removal in pancreatectomy.


References: Beane JD, et al. Variation of drain management after pancreatoduodenectomy: early versus delayed removal. Annals of Surgery. 2017 Oct. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002570

Deminski J, et al. Early removal of intraperitoneal drainage after pancreatoduodenectomy in patients without postoperative fistula at POD3: results of a randomized clinical trial. Journal of Visceral Surgery. 2019 Jan 31. pii: S1878-7886(18)30084-5. doi: 10.1016/j.jviscsurg.2018.06.006

Summary:  Early drain removal after pancreatoduodenectomy, when guided by postoperative day (POD) 1 drain fluid amylase (DFA-1), is associated with reduced rates of clinically relevant postoperative pancreatic fistula (CR-POPF).

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Postpancreatectomy hemorrhages: risk factors and outcomes

One discussion this week involved etiologies of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage.


Reference: Yekebas EF, et al. Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage: diagnosis and treatment: an analysis in 1669 consecutive pancreatic resections. Annals of Surgery. 2007 Aug;246(2):269-280. doi:10.1097/01.sla.0000262953.77735.db

Summary: With the purpose of creating algorithms for managing postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), Yekebas et al (2007) restrospectively analyzed more than 1669 pancreatic resections conducted between 1992 and 2006.  They concluded that the prognosis of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is primarily dependent on the presence of “preceding pancreatic fistula” (p.269).

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