WHO Global Guidelines for the Prevention of SSIs: Antimicrobial prophylaxis in the presence of a drain and wound drain removal

Global Guidelines for the Prevention of Surgical Site Infection. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2018. Web Appendix 27, Summary of a systematic review on antimicrobial prophylaxis in the presence of a drain and wound drain removal.

In conclusion, the available evidence can be summarized as follows:

Prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in the presence of a wound drain vs. perioperative prophylaxis alone (PICO question 1, comparison 1)

Overall, a low quality of evidence shows that prolonged antibiotic prophylaxis in the presence of a wound drain has neither benefit nor harm in reducing the SSI rate when compared to perioperative prophylaxis alone (single dose before incision and possible intraoperative additional dose/s according to the duration of the operation).

Continue reading

Early diagnosis and risk factors of necrotizing soft tissue infection

Fernando SM, Tran A, Cheng W, et al. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection: Diagnostic Accuracy of Physical Examination, Imaging, and LRINEC Score: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Ann Surg. 2019 Jan;269(1):58-65. doi: 10.1097/SLA.0000000000002774. Full-text for Emory users.

Conclusion: “Our systematic review found that individual physical examination signs (fever, hemorrhagic bullae, and hypotension) were poorly sensitive for diagnosis of NSTI. CT had superior sensitivity and specificity to plain radiography in diagnosing NSTI, but may not be readily available in all centers, and may not be suitable for unstable patients. Finally, the LRINEC score was poorly sensitive for diagnosis of NSTI, suggesting that a low score is not sufficient to rule out the diagnosis.”


See also:

Abu El Hawa AA, Dekker PK, et al. Early Diagnosis and Surgical Management of Necrotizing Fasciitis of the Lower Extremities: Risk Factors for Mortality and Amputation. Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle). 2022 May;11(5):217-225.

Harasawa T, et al. Accurate and quick predictor of necrotizing soft tissue infection: Usefulness of the LRINEC score and NSTI assessment score. J Infect Chemother. 2020 Apr;26(4):331-334.

Continue reading

Article of Interest: Preoperative versus postoperative radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma of the limbs: a randomised trial.

O’Sullivan B, Davis AM, Turcotte R, et al. Preoperative versus postoperative radiotherapy in soft-tissue sarcoma of the limbs: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29;359(9325):2235-41. Full-text for Emory users.

Findings: Median follow-up was 3·3 years (range 0·27–5·6). Four patients, all in the preoperative group, did not undergo protocol surgery and were not evaluable for the primary outcome. Of those patients who were eligible and evaluable, wound complications were recorded in 31 (35%) of 88 in the preoperative group and 16 (17%) of 94 in the postoperative group (difference 18% [95% CI 5–30], p=0·01). Tumour size and anatomical site were also significant risk factors in multivariate analysis. Overall survival was slightly better in patients who had preoperative radiotherapy than in those who had postoperative treatment (p=0·0481).

Continue reading

Essential Articles: Trauma

Emory users, open this instance of PubMed, then click the links below for full-text article access.

CRASH-2 trial collaborators, Shakur H, Roberts I, Bautista R, et al. Effects of tranexamic acid on death, vascular occlusive events, and blood transfusion in trauma patients with significant haemorrhage (CRASH-2): a randomised, placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 Jul 3;376(9734):23-32. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(10)60835-5. PMID: 20554319.

Seamon MJ, Haut ER, Van Arendonk K, et al. An evidence-based approach to patient selection for emergency department thoracotomy: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jul;79(1):159-73. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000000648. PMID: 26091330.

Cannon JW, Khan MA, Raja AS, et al. Damage control resuscitation in patients with severe traumatic hemorrhage: A practice management guideline from the Eastern Association for the Surgery of Trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Mar;82(3):605-617. doi: 10.1097/TA.0000000000001333. PMID: 28225743

Article of interest: Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock: 2021

Evans L, Rhodes A, Alhazzani W, et al. Surviving Sepsis Campaign: International Guidelines for Management of Sepsis and Septic Shock 2021. Crit Care Med. 2021 Nov 1;49(11): e1063-e1143.

Full-text for Emory users.

Methods: The panel consisted of five sections: hemodynamics, infection, adjunctive therapies, metabolic, and ventilation. Population, intervention, comparison, and outcomes (PICO) questions were reviewed and updated as needed, and evidence profiles were generated. Each subgroup generated a list of questions, searched for best available evidence, and then followed the principles of the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of evidence from high to very low, and to formulate recommendations as strong or weak, or best practice statement when applicable.

Results: The Surviving Sepsis Guideline panel provided 93 statements on early management and resuscitation of patients with sepsis or septic shock. Overall, 32 were strong recommendations, 39 were weak recommendations, and 18 were best-practice statements. No recommendation was provided for four questions.

Continue reading

The surgical management and outcomes of dialysis access-associated steal syndrome (DASS)

Al Shakarchi J, et al. Surgical techniques for haemodialysis access-induced distal ischaemia. J Vasc Access. 2016 Jan-Feb;17(1):40-6.

Results: Following strict inclusion/exclusion criteria by two reviewers, twenty-seven studies of surgical interventions were included and divided into subgroups for banding, DRIL, PAI and RUDI procedures. Both DRIL and banding procedures were found to have high rates of symptomatic relief. In addition, the DRIL has a significantly lower rate of early thrombosis than banding although the more recent papers seem to suggest that early thrombosis is less of a problem in banding. PAI and RUDI showed some promise but there were too few studies to be able to make any clear conclusions.

Continue reading