Solid Pseudopapillary Neoplasms of the pancreas are rare pancreatic tumors with low grade malignant potential, typically affecting young females.
Small SPNs (< 3cm in diameter) usually appear as completely solid tumors with sharp margins and gradually enhancing, well encapsulated masses in the pancreas and may demonstrate varying amounts of hemorrhage.
Large lesions have mixed solid – cystic components showing early weak enhancement with gradual increase in enhancement in the hepatic venous phase.
Atypical features including extracapsular, as well as parenchymal invasion, simulation of islet cell tumors, calcifications, ductal obstruction, and metastasis are suspicious for malignant degradation.
The tumor is considered unresectable in the event that it invades or encases the aorta, encases >180 degree of the SMA regardless of tumor location in the pancreas, abuts the celiac artery (when the tumor is located in the pancreatic head) or encases >180 degree of the celiac artery (when the tumor is located in the body/tail of the pancreas).
Surgical intervention in the pancreas region is complex and carries the risk of complications, also of vascular nature. Bleeding after pancreatic surgery is rare but characterized by high mortality. This review reports epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment strategies of hemorrhage occurring after pancreatic surgery, focusing on the techniques, roles and outcomes of interventional radiology (IR) in this setting. We then describe the roles and techniques of IR in the treatment of other less common types of vascular complications after pancreatic surgery, such as portal vein (PV) stenosis, portal hypertension and bleeding of varices.
Results: Eighty patients were included. Seven had a malignant tumor. A total of 312 diagnostic examinations were performed: endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS; n = 59; sensitivity, 70%), MRI (n = 33; sensitivity, 58%), CT (n = 55; sensitivity, 47%), transabdominal ultrasonography (US; n = 45; sensitivity, 40%), somatostatin receptor imaging (n = 17; sensitivity, 29%), 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (n = 1; negative), percutaneous transhepatic venous sampling (n = 10; sensitivity, 90%), arterial stimulation venous sampling (n = 20; sensitivity, 65%), and intraoperative US (n = 72; sensitivity, 89%). Fourteen tumors could not be visualized. Invasive methods were used in 7 of these 14 patients and localized the tumor in all cases. Median tumor size was 15 mm (range, 7 to 80 mm). Tumors with malignant vs benign behavior showed less staining for insulin (3 of 7 vs 66 of 73; P = 0.015) and for proinsulin (3 of 6 vs 58 of 59; P < 0.001). Staining for glucagon was seen in 2 of 6 malignant tumors and in no benign tumors (P < 0.001). Forty-three insulinomas stained negative for somatostatin receptor subtype 2a.
Conclusion: Localization of insulinomas requires many different diagnostic procedures. Most tumors can be localized by conventional imaging, including EUS. For nonvisible tumors, invasive methods may be a useful diagnostic tool. Malignant tumors showed reduced staining for insulin and proinsulin and increased staining for glucagon.
Results: One hundred and ninety-five patients (141 women, aged 40.3 years, BMI 26.5 kg/m2) underwent TPIAT. Mean duration of disease before operation was 8.1 years. Fifty-six (29%) patients had pancreatic operations before TPIAT, 37 (19%) patients were diabetic preoperatively, and 52 (27%) patients were smokers. A mean of 3,253 islet equivalents transplanted/kg were harvested. Insulin independence was achieved in 29%, 28%, and 23% of patients at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperative. Nonsmokers with a shorter duration of chronic pancreatitis and no earlier pancreas operation were more likely to be insulin free. Median number of preoperative emergency department visits and hospitalizations were 6.6 and 4.3 annually, respectively, compared with 0 at 1, 2, and 5 years postoperative. Median oral morphine equivalents were 214 mg/kg preoperation and 60, 64, 69, at 1, 2, 5 years postoperative. Preoperative, 1, 2, 5 years postoperative QOL scores were 29, 36, 34, and 33 (physical; p < 0.01) and 39, 44, 42, and 42 (mental health; p < 0.02). Genetic pancreatitis patients were more often narcotic free and had better QOL than patients with pancreatitis of other causes. At 5 years, overall survival was 92.3%.
RESULTS: Covered stent placement was successful in 14 of 16 patients (88%); embolization was successful in 10 of 11 (91%) patients. For the embolization group, the overall 30-day and 1-year survival rate was 70%, and the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 56%; for the covered stent group, these rates were 81% and 74%, respectively. The 30-day patency of the covered stent was 84%, and 1-year patency was 42%; clinically relevant ischemia was observed in two patients. Infarction distal to the embolized vessel occurred in 6 of 11 patients (55%).
Summary: With the purpose of creating algorithms for managing postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH), Yekebas et al (2007) restrospectively analyzed more than 1669 pancreatic resections conducted between 1992 and 2006. They concluded that the prognosis of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is primarily dependent on the presence of “preceding pancreatic fistula” (p.269).