The FOxTROT (Fluoropyrimidine, Oxaliplatin, and Targeted-Receptor pre-Operative Therapy [Panitumumab]) Trial

Seymour MT, Morton D. FOxTROT: an international randomised controlled trial in 1052 patients (pts) evaluating neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2019 May;37(15 Suppl):3504-3504.

Conclusions: NAC was well tolerated and safe, with no increase in perioperative morbidity and a trend toward fewer serious postoperative complications. Evidence of histological regression was seen in 59% pts after NAC, including some pCRs. This resulted in marked histological downstaging and a halving of the rate of incomplete resections. We observed an improvement in 2-yr failure rate (HR=0.77), but this fell short of statistical significance (p=0.11). NAC for colon cancer improves surgical outcomes and can now be considered as a treatment option; longer follow-up and further trials are required to confirm the long-term benefits, refine its use and optimise case selection. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00647530


Foxtrot Collaborative Group. Feasibility of preoperative chemotherapy for locally advanced, operable colon cancer: the pilot phase of a randomised controlled trial. Lancet Oncol. 2012 Nov;13(11):1152-60.

The FOxTrOT website (University of Birmingham)

The timing and accuracy of SLNB for nodal management after NAC

One discussion this week included nodal management after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC).


Reference: Pilewskie M and Morrow M. Axillary nodal management following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. JAMA Oncology. 2017 Apr 1;3(4):549-555.

Summary: The increasing use of NAC has raised questions about the optimal approach to the axilla, including accuracy and timing of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients who are clinically node negative (cN0) at presentation, use of NAC to avoid axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients presenting with node-positive disease, and the relative importance of pre-and post-NAC stage in predicting the risk of locoregional recurrence (LRR).

The decrease in nodal metastases in cN0 patients undergoing post-NAC axillary staging and the increasing rates of pCR in the breast in patients treated with current chemotherapy regimens led to the study of SLNB among patients presenting with cN+ disease. Table 3 (below) summarizes data from three prospective, multi-institutional trials assessing the accuracy of SLNB after NAC among node-positive patients.

SLNB

The authors conclude: NAC reduces the need for ALND, and SLNB is an accurate
method of determining nodal status post NAC. The demonstration that SLNB accurately stages the axilla after NAC regardless of the presenting nodal stage (cN0, cN1) provides an important rationale for the use of NAC for axillary downstaging in patients who are candidates for breast-conserving surgery at presentation or who desire mastectomy. SLN identification rates and FNRs in those who are cN0 are similar to those seen with initial SLN surgery, and nodal recurrence after a negative SLNB is uncommon.

 

Additional Reading: Boughey JC, et al. Sentinel lymph node surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with node-positive breast cancer: the ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance) clinical trial. JAMA. 2013 Oct 9;310(14):1455-1461. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.278932.

Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for initially unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma

One discussion this week included using chemotherapy to enable initially unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) to be resectable.


Reference: Le Roy B, et al. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy for initially unresectable intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma. The British Journal of Surgery. 2018 Jun;105(7):839-847. doi: 10.1002/bjs.10641

Summary: Surgical resection is the standard treatment for ICC, with a 5-year survival rate of 25-35% for those presenting with potentially resectable disease. Those with initially unresectable ICC are treated with chemotherapy alone and have a poor prognosis (p.839). The strategy of conversion to secondary resectability through chemotherapy regimens has resulted in good long-term survival for other tumors (colorectal liver and neuroendocrine liver metastases).  The authors state there is no published data on the use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy to achieve secondary resectability in locally advanced ICC.

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