The surgical management and outcomes of dialysis access-associated steal syndrome (DASS)

Al Shakarchi J, et al. Surgical techniques for haemodialysis access-induced distal ischaemia. J Vasc Access. 2016 Jan-Feb;17(1):40-6.

Results: Following strict inclusion/exclusion criteria by two reviewers, twenty-seven studies of surgical interventions were included and divided into subgroups for banding, DRIL, PAI and RUDI procedures. Both DRIL and banding procedures were found to have high rates of symptomatic relief. In addition, the DRIL has a significantly lower rate of early thrombosis than banding although the more recent papers seem to suggest that early thrombosis is less of a problem in banding. PAI and RUDI showed some promise but there were too few studies to be able to make any clear conclusions.

Conclusions: All four procedures have high success rate in relieving ischaemic symptoms with the DRIL procedure having a significantly better vascular access patency rate than other techniques, although further well designed studies are required to compare all four surgical techniques.

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Coronary-artery revascularization before elective major vascular surgery

McFalls EO, Ward HB, Moritz TE, et al. Coronary-artery revascularization before elective major vascular surgery. N Engl J Med. 2004 Dec 30;351(27):2795-804.

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Results: Of 5859 patients scheduled for vascular operations at 18 Veterans Affairs Medical centers, 510 (9 percent) were eligible for the study and were randomly assigned to either coronary-artery revascularization before surgery or no revascularization before surgery. The indications for a vascular operation were an expanding abdominal aortic aneurysm (33 percent) or arterial occlusive disease of the legs (67 percent). Among the patients assigned to preoperative coronary-artery revascularization, percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 59 percent, and bypass surgery was performed in 41 percent. The median time from randomization to vascular surgery was 54 days in the revascularization group and 18 days in the group not undergoing revascularization (P<0.001). At 2.7 years after randomization, mortality in the revascularization group was 22 percent and in the no-revascularization group 23 percent (relative risk, 0.98; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.70 to 1.37; P=0.92). Within 30 days after the vascular operation, a postoperative myocardial infarction, defined by elevated troponin levels, occurred in 12 percent of the revascularization group and 14 percent of the no-revascularization group (P=0.37). Continue reading

Phlegmasia alba dolens and phlegmasia cerulea dolens

Chinsakchai K, et al. Trends in management of phlegmasia cerulea dolens. Vasc Endovascular Surg. 2011 Jan;45(1):5-14.

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PCD screenshot

Phlegmasia cerulea dolens (PCD) is a fulminant condition of acute massive venous thrombosis that may result in major amputation or death unless treated in an early phase. Guidelines for treatment are still not clearly documented. As a consequence, physicians might have limited knowledge of this potential life-threatening condition and its clinical course. Therefore, the purpose of this review was to analyze and summarize clinical manifestations and proposed diagnostic approach, factors that affect the outcome of PCD, and the evolution of management and therapeutic options. Underlying malignancy, pulmonary embolism, and PCD severity are the vital factors that predict the outcome of PCD. In the last decades, treatment options have remained largely unchanged. Published evidence shows that advances in minimally invasive techniques have not yet resulted in outcome improvements compared with traditional surgical thrombectomy. Treatment seems to depend on grading the severity of this condition and experience of the surgeon.

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Left subclavian artery coverage during thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) and the risk of stroke

Swerdlow NJ, et al. Stroke rate after endovascular aortic interventions in the Society for Vascular Surgery Vascular Quality Initiative. J Vasc Surg. 2020 Apr 2. [Epub ahead of print]

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TEVAR table

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Preoperative evaluation & perioperative management of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing vascular surgery

Bauer SM, Cayne NS, Veith FJ. New developments in the preoperative evaluation and perioperative management of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing vascular surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Jan;51(1):242-51.

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Conclusions: Routine stress testing should not be performed before VS. The Lee index should be used to stratify risk in patients undergoing VS. Patients with >or=3 risk factors or active cardiac conditions should undergo stress testing, if VS can be delayed. All VS patients, except those with 0 risk factors, should be considered for a beta-blocker (bisoprolol, 2.5-5 mg/d started 1 month before VS, titrated to a pulse <70 beats/min and a systolic blood pressure >or=120 mm Hg). Intermediate risk factors may not require aggressive heart rate control but simply maintenance on a low-dose beta-blocker. Statins should be started (ideally 30 days) before all VS using long-acting formulations such as fluvastatin (80 mg/d) for patients unable to take oral medication.

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Splenic artery aneurysms: Comparing open and endovascular surgical modalities

Barrionuevo P, Malas MB, Nejim B, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the management of visceral artery aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2019;70(5):1694–1699.

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“We included 33 case series of 523 splenic artery aneurysms treated with an endovascular approach and 22 series of 252 splenic artery aneurysms treated with open surgery. Short-term and long-term mortality rates were very low and not significantly different between the two interventions. Mortality was high for ruptured aneurysms treated with an open approach, with an event rate of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.04-0.71). End-organ infarction and gastrointestinal complications rates were not significantly different between the two approaches. The need for reintervention was lower for open surgery 0.00 (95% CI, 0.00-0.11) than for the endovascular approach 0.07 (95% CI, 0.01-0.17). The risk of access site complications for the endovascular approach was low at 0.02 (95% CI, 0.00-0.09). Rates of PES and coil migration were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.04-0.79) and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.00-0.24), respectively. Data were insufficient to identify a difference in mortality based on aneurysm size.”

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AAA repair: retroperitoneal vs transperitoneal approach

One discussion this week included transperitoneal vs retroperitoneal  approach following AAA repair.


Reference: Buck DB, et al. Transperitoneal vs retroperitoneal approach for open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the targeted vascular NSQIP. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2016 Sept;64(3):585-591. doi:10/1016/j.jvs.2016.01.055.

Summary: This study aims to identify the demographic and anatomical differences between patients currently selected for elective transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal AAA repair and to assess differences in intra-operative details, and perioperative mortality and complications.

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