Preoperative evaluation & perioperative management of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing vascular surgery

Bauer SM, Cayne NS, Veith FJ. New developments in the preoperative evaluation and perioperative management of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing vascular surgery. J Vasc Surg. 2010 Jan;51(1):242-51.

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Conclusions: Routine stress testing should not be performed before VS. The Lee index should be used to stratify risk in patients undergoing VS. Patients with >or=3 risk factors or active cardiac conditions should undergo stress testing, if VS can be delayed. All VS patients, except those with 0 risk factors, should be considered for a beta-blocker (bisoprolol, 2.5-5 mg/d started 1 month before VS, titrated to a pulse <70 beats/min and a systolic blood pressure >or=120 mm Hg). Intermediate risk factors may not require aggressive heart rate control but simply maintenance on a low-dose beta-blocker. Statins should be started (ideally 30 days) before all VS using long-acting formulations such as fluvastatin (80 mg/d) for patients unable to take oral medication.

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Splenic artery aneurysms: Comparing open and endovascular surgical modalities

Barrionuevo P, Malas MB, Nejim B, et al. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the management of visceral artery aneurysms. J Vasc Surg. 2019;70(5):1694–1699.

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“We included 33 case series of 523 splenic artery aneurysms treated with an endovascular approach and 22 series of 252 splenic artery aneurysms treated with open surgery. Short-term and long-term mortality rates were very low and not significantly different between the two interventions. Mortality was high for ruptured aneurysms treated with an open approach, with an event rate of 0.29 (95% CI, 0.04-0.71). End-organ infarction and gastrointestinal complications rates were not significantly different between the two approaches. The need for reintervention was lower for open surgery 0.00 (95% CI, 0.00-0.11) than for the endovascular approach 0.07 (95% CI, 0.01-0.17). The risk of access site complications for the endovascular approach was low at 0.02 (95% CI, 0.00-0.09). Rates of PES and coil migration were 0.38 (95% CI, 0.04-0.79) and 0.08 (95% CI, 0.00-0.24), respectively. Data were insufficient to identify a difference in mortality based on aneurysm size.”

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AAA repair: retroperitoneal vs transperitoneal approach

One discussion this week included transperitoneal vs retroperitoneal  approach following AAA repair.


Reference: Buck DB, et al. Transperitoneal vs retroperitoneal approach for open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the targeted vascular NSQIP. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2016 Sept;64(3):585-591. doi:10/1016/j.jvs.2016.01.055.

Summary: This study aims to identify the demographic and anatomical differences between patients currently selected for elective transperitoneal versus retroperitoneal AAA repair and to assess differences in intra-operative details, and perioperative mortality and complications.

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Open vs endovascular revascularization for acute limb ischemia: a review of major trials

One discussion this week involved open surgical versus endovascular revascularization for acute limb ischemia (ALI).


Reference: Wang JC, Kim AH, Kashyap VS. Open surgical or endovascular revascularization for acute limb ischemia. Journal of Vascular Surgery. 2016 Jan;63(1):270-278. doi:10/1016/j.jvs.2015.09.055.

Summary: Peripheral arterial disease affects approximately 10 million Americans. It can lead to lower extremity ischemic rest pain or tissue loss (Rutherford classification 4 to 6, or Fontaine classification III and IV). Acute limb ischemia (ALI) is defined as the presence of symptoms within 2 weeks of onset. ALI pathogenesis includes vascular stenoses with subsequent in situ thrombosis or thromboembolism from a cardiac or aortoiliac source. Stenotic lesions may indicate untreated comorbidities (eg, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, or tobacco use), whereas thromboembolisms implicate undiagnosed cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction (MI), or mural thrombus. Limb loss risk due to ALI can be as high as 40% with an attendant mortality rate of 15% to 20% (p.270).

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