Yadav D, Hawes RH, Brand RE, et al. Alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and the risk of recurrent acute and chronic pancreatitis. Arch Intern Med. 2009 Jun 8; 169(11):1035-45.
Figure 3. Distribution of self-reported smoking status (A) and amount (B) stratified by drinking categories. All proportions are based on effective numbers, and never smokers account for the proportions not reflected in the graphs. C indicates control group; CP, chronic pancreatitis group; RAP, recurrent acute pancreatitis group.
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Chaitoff A, Cifu AS, Niforatos JD. Initial Management of Acute Pancreatitis. JAMA. 2020 May 7. doi: 10.1001/jama.2020.2177. [Epub ahead of print]
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- In patients with acute pancreatitis, early oral feeding as tolerated (within 24 hours) is recommended (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
- If patients are unable to tolerate oral feeding, enteral (oral or enteral tube) rather than parenteral nutrition is recommended (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
- In patients with acute biliary pancreatitis, cholecystectomy should be performed during the initial admission rather than after discharge (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
- In patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis, a brief alcohol intervention should be performed during the initial admission (strong recommendation; moderate evidence).
- In patients with predicted severe acute pancreatitis and necrotizing acute pancreatitis, the guidelines suggest against use of prophylactic antibiotics (conditional recommendation; low evidence).