Article of interest: Bleeding complications after pancreatic surgery: interventional radiology management

Biondetti P, Fumarola EM, Ierardi AM, Carrafiello G. Bleeding complications after pancreatic surgery: interventional radiology management. Gland Surg. 2019 Apr;8(2):150-163. doi: 10.21037/gs.2019.01.06.

Surgical intervention in the pancreas region is complex and carries the risk of complications, also of vascular nature. Bleeding after pancreatic surgery is rare but characterized by high mortality. This review reports epidemiology, classification, diagnosis and treatment strategies of hemorrhage occurring after pancreatic surgery, focusing on the techniques, roles and outcomes of interventional radiology (IR) in this setting. We then describe the roles and techniques of IR in the treatment of other less common types of vascular complications after pancreatic surgery, such as portal vein (PV) stenosis, portal hypertension and bleeding of varices.

Preoperative splenic artery embolization for massive splenomegaly

Wu Z, Zhou J, Pankaj P, Peng B. Comparative treatment and literature review for laparoscopic splenectomy alone versus preoperative splenic artery embolization splenectomy. Surg Endosc. 2012 Oct;26(10):2758-66.

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Surg Endo screenshot

Results: Preoperative splenic artery embolization plus laparoscopic splenectomy was successfully performed in all patients in group 1. One patient in group 2 required an intraoperative conversion to traditional open splenectomy because of severe blood loss. Compared with group 2, significantly shorter operating time, less intraoperative blood loss, and shorter postoperative hospital stay were noted in group 1. No marked significant differences in postoperative complications of either group were observed. Compared with group 3, group 1 had less intraoperative blood loss, shorter postoperative stay, and fewer complications. No significant differences were found in operating time. There was a marked increase in platelet count and white blood count in both groups during the follow-up period.

Conclusions: Preoperative splenic artery embolization with laparoscopic splenectomy reduced the operating time and decreased intraoperative blood loss when compared with laparoscopic splenectomy alone or open splenectomy. Splenic artery embolization is a useful intraoperative adjunctive procedure for patients with splenomegaly because of the benefit of perioperative outcomes.

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Preoperative portal vein embolization for major liver resection

Rassam F, et al. Functional and volumetric assessment of liver segments after portal
vein embolization: Differences in hypertrophy response. Surgery. 2019 Apr;165(4):686-695.

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RESULTS: A total of 90 patients underwent portal vein embolization of the right liver. After 3 weeks, there was a significant increase in both volumetric and functional share of the future remnant liver (both P < .01). The increase in functional share exceeded the increase in volumetric share (P < .01). The median functional contribution of segment 4 after portal vein embolization was 41.5% (31.7%-48.7%) of the nonembolized lobe. Preoperative chemotherapy was not a significant predictor of the increase in function or volume. Compared with benign lesions, malignant diseases were significant negative predictors of the functional response.

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Covered stents and coil embolization for treatment of postpancreatectomy hemorrhage

Hassold N, et al. Effectiveness and outcome of endovascular therapy for late-onset postpancreatectomy hemorrhage using covered stents and embolization. J Vasc Surg. 2016 Nov;64(5):1373-1383.

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Fig 6 stent vs emobliz

RESULTS: Covered stent placement was successful in 14 of 16 patients (88%); embolization was successful in 10 of 11 (91%) patients. For the embolization group, the overall 30-day and 1-year survival rate was 70%, and the 1- and 2-year survival rate was 56%; for the covered stent group, these rates were 81% and 74%, respectively. The 30-day patency of the covered stent was 84%, and 1-year patency was 42%; clinically relevant ischemia was observed in two patients. Infarction distal to the embolized vessel occurred in 6 of 11 patients (55%).

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